Quiz 1 - Future forms
Quiz 2 - Future expressions
Quiz 3 - Advanced question tags
Don't we (Brits) usually only use shall in offers and suggestions:
- Shall I get you another coffee? - offer
- Shall we get tickets for that new film? - suggestion
- Are you ready? Shall we go? - suggestion
- And of course: Shall we dance?
- Where shall I put your tea?
- Who shall we ask to the party?
- I'm so bored. What shall I do tonight?
- When shall I see you again?
And from Shakespeare's Macbeth:
In thunder, lightning, or in rain?
- Let's go to the cinema tonight, shall we?
- I'll close the window, shall I?
- shall for orders etc., - I (we) don't usually give myself (ourselves) orders; on the other hand, we can can ask for them, and give them to other people.
- will for wish, desire etc., - I (we) know what I (we) want (will), but can't speak for what other people want; on the other hand, we can ask them know when they refuse.
- you use shall with I and we when asking somebody what they want us to do
- you use shall with you, he, she, it, they for commands
- you use will with I and we, meaning it is my will, I want to
- you use will with you, he, she, it, they where the person's will is involved, especially in questions and negatives .
- coloured-future - to express determination or command:
- you use will with I or we
- but shall with you, he, she, it, they.
- plain-future - for simple futurity:
- you use shall with I or we
- but will with you, he, she, it, they.
- Shall I open a window?
- Thou shalt not steal - one of the ten commandments
- I will have my way.
- Will she do as I ask? No, she won't. (Is she willing? No, she refuses to do it.)
- I will climb that damned mountain, whatever you say.
- You shall go to the ball, the fairy godmother says to Cinderella.
- I shall call the 'pure system' Type 1.
- We shall be late if we don't hurry.
- They will phone us when they get there.
“I shall drown; no one will save me!”
- both verbs being about simple statements of fact (Type 3).
By saying it the way he did, the traditionalist theory goes, he was in fact saying:
“I want to (will) drown; no one should / ought to (shall) save me!”
- the two verbs being about determination and command respectively (Type 2 or perhaps even Type 1).
But the joke is really only funny to linguists or grammarians who understand these rules.
1. Future forms quiz.
Click to drop - Fill the gaps by clicking on the appropriate option (in grey). If you change your mind just repeat the process.
|1.||What later tonight?|
|will you do - are you doing - have you done|
|2.||They the report by Friday, at the latest.|
|will have finished - will be finishing - we finish|
|3.||This is your pilot speaking, we in ten minutes.|
|will land - are going to land - will be landing|
|4.||I have decided I look at holiday offers tomorrow|
|will - am going to - am looking|
|5.||This time next week, I on a beach in Spain.|
|will be lying - will lie - am going to lie|
|6.||If the bus doesn't come in the next five minutes, it means I for half an hour.|
|am waiting - will have been waiting - will have waited|
|7.||According to the timetable, the train at 18.30.|
|will leave - is going to leave - leaves|
|8.||Hurry up, the train in five minutes.|
|will leave - is leaving - will have been leaving|
|9.||Just look at that huge traffic jam, we late.|
|are going to be - will be - will have been|
|10.||Now I've finished this exercise, I think I another coffee.|
|am having - will have - will be having|
2. Future expressions quiz
Click and drop - Fill the gaps by clicking on a word or expression in the top box (in grey) and then on the corresponding box. If you change your mind just repeat the process.
|1.||According to the timetable, the train leave at 18.30.|
|2.||Hurry up, the train leave.|
|3.||The Internet become a bigger advertising medium than the traditional press.|
|4.||The government has announced it introduce a new law on smoking.|
|5.||Just look at this huge traffic jam, it make us late.|
3. Question tags. We saw that shall is used in some question tags. Most question tags are fairly obvious, such as 'You're French, aren't you'. However some are not quite so straightforward. Try this quiz to do with more advanced question tags. If you need a reminder how they work, you can look at this web page.
|1.||Lovely day, ?|
|2.||Let's go now, ?|
|3.||Give me a hand, ?|
|4.||Don't forget to email me, ?|
|5.||Somebody asked for cake, ?|
|6.||Nobody phoned while I was out, ?|
|7.||I'm a bit late, ?|
|8.||Come and sit here by me, ?|
|9.||You would have done the same, ?|
|10.||She couldn't have missed the train, ?|
|11.||Everything is OK, ?|
|12.||Nothing can go wrong, ?|
- English Page - the basics for learners
- Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary - check out the usage notes
- English grammar secrets - not sure I like being called an 'older speaker'!
- Merriam-Webster Dictionary - good usage discussion
- Grammar Girl - neatly laid out explanation
- Wikipedia - the full story, gets pretty technical
- About.com - abridged story, quite clear
- Fowler - all twenty pages of it
- Motivated grammar - American lightheartedly complains he'll never get the hang of 'shall'