- 1. While standard relative clauses tell us something about the noun they are modifying (the antecedent) , coordinate relative clauses give us new information
- 2. We don't use standard non-defining relative clauses in spoken English very much, their being seen as rather formal. But coordinate relative clauses are often used in spoken and as well as written language.
What is a coordinate clause?
|Main clause||Subordinate clause|
|I got wet||because||I'd forgotten to bring my umbrella.|
|I met him||when||I was in Paris.|
|Coordinate clause||Coordinate clause|
|I love her||and||she loves me.|
|He works in the city||but||he lives in the country.|
Standard relative clauses are subordinate clauses
- Mark is the person who will be running our new French operation.
- Mark, who speaks French, will be running our new French operation.
Two sentences become one.
- This is Mark. He will be running our new French operation.
- This is Mark, and he will be running our new French operation.
- This is Mark, who will be running our new French operation.
Referring back to a noun
- I've just been talking to Martin. He says you're thinking of leaving.
- At the front of the car is the radiator. It cools the engine.
- I've just been talking to Martin, who says you're thinking of leaving.
- At the front of the car is the radiator, which cools the engine.
Exercise 1 - Complete each sentence (1-10) with a coordinate relative clause starting with who or which, using the sentences (a-j) below and making any necessary changes.
|1.||We have just hired Samantha, .|
|2.||I gave your message to Peter, .|
|3.||He gave his wife a set of gardening tools, .|
|4.||I've just bumped into Adrian, .|
|5.||I put on some Flamenco music, .|
|6.||She showed me some old photos of Paul, .|
|7.||She eventually married Stephen, .|
|8.||He's just got a job in advertising, .|
|9.||That car belongs to our new neighbours, .|
|10.||I've just bought a new smartphone, .|
|a||It reminded her of her holiday in Andalucia|
|b||He hasn't changed a bit|
|c||She will be looking after HR from now on|
|d||We haven't met them yet|
|e||I haven't seen him for ages|
|f||It's what he had always wanted|
|g||It can do everything imaginable|
|h||She had met him when they were at university|
|i||He says he'll contact you ASAP|
|j||She said they would be very useful|
Referring to the whole of the first clause
- The weather stayed fine for the wedding, which was great.
- The weather stayed fine for the wedding, which meant we could have the reception outdoors.
Exercise 2 - Complete each sentence (1-10) with a sentential relative clause, using the sentences (a-j) below and making any necessary changes.
|1.||Her parents were always praising her, .|
|2.||He had finished his homework, .|
|3.||She arrived at the interview ten minutes late,|
|4.||She had forgotten her mobile, .|
|5.||He managed to upset everyone, .|
|6.||We've just bought a hybrid car, .|
|7.||He invited her to the opera, .|
|8.||I had to miss Samantha's party, .|
|9.||I'm afraid I've got a meeting at two, .|
|10.||She left without even saying goodbye, .|
|a||This was just typical of him|
|b||This meant he could go out and play|
|c||This made her feel a bit embarrassed|
|d||This I thought rather rude|
|e||This is why I can't stay long|
|f||This explains why she didn't call|
|g||This hardly made a good start|
|h||This should save on fuel bills|
|i||This was a bit of a shame|
|j||This pleased her no end|
- I told him to button it. By this I meant he should keep his mouth shut.
- I told him to button it, by which I meant he should keep his mouth shut.
Exercise 3 - Complete each sentence (1-8) with a coordinate relative clause starting with a preposition, using the sentences (a-h) below and making any necessary changes.
|1.||The clowns came into the ring, .|
|2.||I didn't arrive until eleven, .|
|3.||It started to rain, .|
|4.||We've given the job to Fiona, .|
|5.||They came out onto the balcony of the palace, .|
|6.||He entered a shady grove of trees, .|
|7.||She stood next to her brother, .|
|8.||There were two tall trees, .|
|a||Despite this we kept walking to the beach|
|b||The children burst out laughing at this|
|c||By this time most of the others had left|
|d||She looked rather small beside him|
|e||Between them was strung a hammock|
|f||In front of this was a huge crowd|
|g||In the middle of this was a small pond|
|h||We have the greatest confidence in her|
With relative adverbs
- He lived there in the eighties. At that time he was a student.
- He lived there in the eighties, when he was a student.
- She went back to visit Brighton. She had first studied English there.
- She went back to visit Brighton, where she had first studied English.
Exercise 4 - Complete each sentence (1-6) with a coordinate relative clause starting with where or when, using the sentences (a-f) below and making any necessary changes.t
|1.||We had a great holiday last autumn, .|
|2.||Here are some photos of Windermere in the Lake District, .|
|3.||We visited Dove cottage in Grasmere, .|
|4.||Wordsworth was born in the late 18th century, .|
|5.||In 1792 Wordsworth visited Paris,|
|6.||And this is St. Oswald's churchyard, .|
|a||change was in the air at that time|
|b||Wordsworth is buried there|
|c||our hotel was there|
|d||we spent some time in the Lake District then|
|e||the poet Wordsworth lived there|
|f||the revolution was in full swing there|
Reducing coordinate relative clauses
- Sales have been excellent. This has resulted in us doubling our order.
- Sales have been excellent, which has resulted in us doubling our order.
- Sales have been excellent, resulting in us doubling our order.
Exercise 5 - Complete each sentence (1-8) with a coordinate relative clause starting with an -ing participle, using the sentences (a-h) below and making any necessary changes.
|1.||Queues for tickets started very early,|
|2.||It has been a very hot summer,|
|3.||The roads have been very busy today, .|
|4.||In the morning there will be light winds, .|
|5.||Internet banking is very easy, .|
|6.||He got top marks in his exams, .|
|7.||She was late, .|
|8.||There has been an accident on the M4, .|
|a||This makes visits to the branch largely unnecessary|
|b||This has blocked two lanes northbound|
|c||This has resulted in excellent ice cream sales|
|d||This suggests that the concert will be a sell out|
|e||This delighted his parents|
|f||These will become stronger in the afternoon|
|g||This meant that we had to start the meeting without her|
|h||This has lead to long traffic jams|
Related posts on this blog
- Viet ESL -quite detailed description of connective relative clauses
- Maralboran.org - breakdown of types of relative clauses, including connective relative clauses
- Xtec - breakdown of types of relative clauses, including connective relative clauses
- Advanced English Practice by BD Graver (Oxford)
- Multitran - brief forum discussion