- 1. Verb + object + infinitive
- 2. Infinitives after wh-words
- 3. Infinitives of purpose, etc
- 4. Infinitive forms
- 5. Passive reporting structures
- 6. Passives after preparatory it and there
- 7. Actions after verbs of perception - see, hear etc
- 8. Bringing it all together.
1. Verb + object + infinitive
- subject + verb + object + to-infinitive
The receptionist told me to wait.
They made him take a test.
- subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
I was told to wait (by the receptionist).
He was made to take a test.
- We were let to stay up late
We were allowed to stay up late.
2. Infinitives after wh-words
- We were told where to go.
- They were shown what to do and how to do it.
3. Infinitive of purpose etc
- He was selected to represent his country.
- It has been designed to withstand high temperatures.
- The bushes were planted there to hide the rubbish bins.
|Exercise 1||Make passive versions of the sentences, keeping in the same tense and omitting the agent (in brackets). Use contractions where appropriate, but don't add any punctuation.|
|1.||(They) ordered her to pack her bags and leave. |
|2.||(They) encouraged her to apply for promotion. |
|3.||(They) were just showing us what to do when it started to rain. |
|4.||Does (he) really make the team run four miles before breakfast every day? |
|5.||(They)'ll tell you what to do when you arrive. |
|6.||(She)'s not asking them to do very much. |
4. Infinitive forms
|Exercise 2||Enter the six forms of the to-infinitive of the verb do.|
|standard||We were told it immediately.|
|continuous||He is thought it right now.|
|perfect||She was meant it already.|
|perfect continuous||They are thought it for hours.|
|passive||The task is scheduled before the end of the week.|
|passive perfect||The job was reported rather well.|
- Perfect infinitives are used for actions that happened before the reporting
- Passive perfect infinitives are sometimes used to emphasise that something is or isn't complete - It was to have been done today, but they didn't manage.
5. Passives followed by an infinitive - reporting verbs
- subject + reporting verb + that clause
They believe that the tourists are safe.
They reported that the suspect was dangerous.
subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
The tourists are believed to be safe.
The suspect was reported to be dangerous.
|Exercise 3||Enter a suitable verb in the appropriate form of the infinitive. Each infinitive is in a different form.|
|1.||Apple are expected their new iPhone next week.|
|2.||New crime figures are expected tomorrow.|
|3.||The company are thought this move for several months.|
|4.||Several people were reported in the crash.|
|5.||The club are currently understood a new manager.|
|6.||They are believed in Britain on a boat.|
6. Structures with preparatory it and preparatory there
- it + that-clause
It is said that
- there + to-infinitive
There are known to be
7. Actions after verbs of perception and certain other verbs
- Subj + verb perception + obj + -ing form
She saw a man climbing out of a window.
A man was seen climbing out of a window.
- Subj + verb perception + obj + bare infinitive
They heard someone shout a warning.
Someone was heard to shout a warning.
|Exercise 4||Make passive versions of the sentences, keeping them in the same tense, starting with the words given in brackets and omitting the agents. Don't use any contractions, and don't add any punctuation.|
|1.||They caught Johnny smoking behind the bicycle sheds. (Johnny) |
|2.||People saw a man with a gun get into a parked car. (A man) |
|3.||Your people have kept me waiting long enough. (I)|
|4.||They had found the little boy playing by himself near the canal. (The little boy)|
|5.||They heard the woman shout a warning to her husband. (The woman) |
|6.||They observed the young man breaking into a shop. (The young man) |
- A man was reported to have been seen climbing out of a window.
- It was said that she had been overheard threatening her neighbour.
8. Bringing it all together
|Exercise 5||Make passive versions of the sentences, keeping in the same tense, omitting the agent (in brackets). Don't add any punctuation.|
|1.||(They) chose her to represent them at the convention. |
|2.||Have (they) told you what to do in an emergency?. |
|3.||(Her friends) planned the party to be a surprise.|
|4.||(Police) suspect that the stolen goods have already been sold.|
|5.||(We) will expect you to follow the rules to the letter. |
|6.||(They) had made us pay in advance. |
|7.||In those days (they) built houses to last.|
|8.||(We) are telling people not to expect too much at this stage.|
|9.||(People) saw him jump out of a first-floor window. |
|10.||(Neighbours) heard him the couple arguing late at night. |
|Exercise 6||Make passive versions of the sentences, keeping in the same tense, omitting the agent (in brackets). Don't add any punctuation.|
|1.||(Police) proved that his alibi was false.|
|2.||(Experts) forecast that unemployment will drop later this year.|
|3.||(Friends) have recommended that we try the new Thai restaurant.|
|4.||(Observers) expect that an announcement will be made tomorrow.|
|5.||(The manufacturer) makes these sweets to make your mouth water.|
|6.||(They) are going to erect a monument to commemorate him.|
|7.||(People) reported that he has been seen in the neighbourhood. |
|8.||(They) had thought that she had married him for his money.|
|9.||(The shopkeeper) had noticed him hanging round outside the shop earlier on.|
|10.||(Officials) were advising tourists to avoid the area.|
- Advanced English Practice - BD Graver (Oxford)
- Grammar and Vocabulary for CAE and CPE - Side and Wellman (Longman)
- Practical English Usage - Michael Swan (Oxford)
- Advanced Grammar in Use - Martin Hewings