1. The basics
Exercise 1 - Look at these two sentences and decide whether each sentence is about cause or result, and then answer the questions that follow.
|Johnny kicked a ball at the window.|
|The window broke.|
|1.||Which came first chronologically, cause or result?|
|2.||Which answers the question - What happened?|
|3.||Which answers the question - Why did it happen?|
|4.||Which can we put the conjunction because before?|
|5.||Which can we put the conjunction so before?|
Exercise 2a - Match the two halves of each sentence
Exercise 2b - Add a suitable linking expression from the box. Each is used twice
|1.||Prices in general have risen|
|2.||There has been relatively low inflation|
|3.||the economy in this country is expanding|
|4.||Foreign investment has been high|
|5.||Inflation was very high|
|6.||the economic crisis|
|a||few companies wanted to invest.|
|b||consumer confidence is high.|
|c||the price of oil has risen.|
|d||the tax incentives being offered.|
|e||many companies have set up here.|
|f||many companies are cutting back.|
2. Other expressions
Exercise 3 - Now decide whether these expressions introduce a reason clause or a result clause. Be careful, some are not so obvious. Try doing it like this, where X is the reason, and Y the result:
- because X - Johnny kicked the ball at the window (reason)
- so Y - the window broke (result)
|due to ...|
|as result of ...|
|results (resulting) in ...|
|leads (leading) to ...|
|owing to ...|
|stems (stemming) from ...|
|results (resulting) from ...|
|as a result ...|
|1.||I was in his neighbourhood,||a||to the awful weather.|
|2.||This year's sales have not been at all good.||b||I decided to pay him a visit.|
|3.||We didn't have a very good holiday,||c||I haven't seen it before.|
|4.||my early flight,||d||a lot of new business.|
|5.||Winning this contract could||e||I had to get up at the crack of dawn.|
|6.||His lack of self-confidence could||f||I have decided, , to give you a second chance.|
|7.||You made a big mistake, but you haven't been in this job very long.||g||, we are going to have to let some of you go.|
|8.||I'd prefer to see the film with Penelope Cruz||h||problems he had in his childhood.|
Clause or Noun phrase?
Exercise 5 - Decide whether these expressions can be followed by a clause (subject + verb etc) or a noun or its equivalent (noun phrase, pronoun, gerund)
- Because the weather was so bad, we cancelled our picnic.
- Because of the bad weather, we cancelled our picnic.
|because of ...|
|due to ...|
|as result of ...|
|results in ...|
|leads to ...|
|owing to ...|
|stems from ...|
|as a result ...|
Hence, thus and given (that)
- This situation is losing us money, hence my concern
- We need to act quickly, hence my calling this meeting.
- We need a decision by tomorrow, thus the urgency.
- United won their match today, thus keeping their title as League champions.
- We need to cut prices and thus increase sales.
- Britain's debt is very high; thus all parties agree there have to be some cuts.
- But each party has a different pespective on the problem. Thus, the question of where the cuts should come varies enormously.
- The opposition has begun to see some weakness on the government side. Hence, they have begun to attack the government benches with more vigour.
- Given the current situation, we need to hold back on salary increases.
- Given that there was a substantial incease last year, this shouldn't cause too many problems.
- Because/since/as we were late, we took a taxi.
- Given that we were late, we took a taxi.
- We were late, so we took a taxi.
- We were late, therefore we took a taxi.
- Money is very short at the moment; as a result, this year's Christmas party will be held in a pub. I will of course buy the first round.
- I'm trying to lose weight; consequently, it's orange juice for me, please.
- Our sales have gone through the roof this month. We are, therefore, paying you an extra bonus in appreciation of all your hard work.
Expressions with result
Exercise 6 - Fill the gaps using the expressions in the box
|1.||No 2 Machine has been out of action, considerable loss of production.|
|2.||The mechanical problems seem to have poor maintenance.|
|3.||Which in turn could be staff cuts in the maintenance department.|
|4.||these cuts, the maintenance department is now overstretched.|
|5.||And from this situation, they don't have enough time to deal with everything.|
|6.||If we don't fix this problem soon, it could lost sales.|
|7.||And as you know, of lost sales is lost profits.|
|8.||, Ladies and Gentlemen, our jobs could be on the line.|
Be careful with prepositions
Exercise 7 - Fill the gaps using the prepositions in the box
|1.||Eating too much junk food can lead child obesity.|
|2.||Because this, the government is trying to control junk food advertising.|
|3.||To a certain extent, the crisis of 2008 stemmed the bursting of the housing bubble.|
|4.||But over-reliance on credit also contributed the situation.|
|5.||His poor performance has been the cause much anxiety at team headquarters.|
|6.||This has resulted their giving the No 1 position to his team-mate and rival.|
|7.||The flight was delayed, owing a strike by air traffic controllers.|
|8.||The strike was caused a breakdown in talks.|
|9.||One consequence liberalisation seems to be a bigger gap between rich and poor.|
|10.||Greater social tensions could be the result this inequality.|
|11.||Many companies have cut back on English lessons due continuing uncertainty.|
|12.||This uncertainty results the fact that the recovery has been very slow.|
3. Participle clauses
Exercise 8 - See if you can identify whether the participle clauses in these sentences refer to cause or result (try substituting because or so):
|1.||Johnny kicked a ball at the window, breaking it.|
|2.||Kicking a ball at the window, Johnny broke it.|
|3.||He forgot about the time, turning up to the meeting ten minutes late.|
|4.||I didn't want to go to Paris, having been there the last three years running.|
|5.||Woken in the night by a violent thunderstorm, he didn't get much sleep.|
|6.||She was totally engrossed in her book, not noticing this was her bus stop.|
|7.||Totally engrossed in her book, she didn't notice that this was her stop.|
|8.||Not looking where he was going, he bumped into an old lady.|
|9.||Neglected by his parents, he grew up without any sense of belonging.|
|10.||He found a good deal on the Internet, saving himself a bit of money.|
|11.||He didn't buy her a present, forgetting it was her birthday.|
|12.||They were late leaving the house, nearly missing their train.|
Exercise 9 - Complete the sentences by using a suitable participle form of a verb in the box. There is one verb which is used twice.
|1.||He forgot to set his alarm clock, ten minutes late for work.|
|2.||her coming out of a shop, he went over to talk to her.|
|3.||this way and that by the wind, the leaves formed little piles.|
|4.||He thought he was free at lunchtime, that he had an appointment.|
|5.||hard at her thesis in the library, she didn't notice the time passing.|
|6.||He had to go off to see a client, lunch for the third day running.|
|7.||by surprise by his sudden appearance, she didn't know what to say.|
|8.||Not much exercise, he's not very fit, which isn't very surprising.|
So ... and such ... (that)
Exercise 10a - Match the sentence halves
Exercise 10b - Enter appropriate expressions from the box
|1.||We were tired|
|2.||It was lovely evening|
|3.||The restaurant was good|
|4.||She's fun to be with|
|5.||It was fun|
|6.||They performed badly|
|7.||I made huge mess of things|
|8.||He was impressed with their act|
The reason why ... is because - for those who, like me, like language controversies.
- The reason why - the word why refers to the reason so some people think it is redundant.
- The reason ... is because ... - in the same way, some people think because is redundant, as it is also about the reason.
- The reason ... is because ... - more seriously perhaps, some people say this is grammatically incorrect. Why do you think that would be?
But look at this:
- Ex 1. - cause, result, 1. cause, 2. result, 3. cause, 4. cause, 5. result
- Ex 2a. 1. c, 2. b, 3. e, 4. d, 5. a, 6. f
- Ex 2b. 1. because, 2. so, 3. Because, 4. because of, 5. so, 6. Because of
- Ex 3. - 1. reason, 2. result, 3. reason, 4. reason, 5. result, 6. reason, 7. result, 8. reason, 9. reason, 10. result, 11. reason, 12, result
- Ex 4a. - 1. b, 2. g, 3. a, 4. e, 5. d, 6. h, 7. f, 8. c
- Ex 4b. - 1. Since, 2. Consequently, 3. due, 4. Owing to, 5. lead to, 6. stem from, 7. therefore, 8. as
- Ex 5. - 1. clause, 2. noun, 3. clause, 4. clause, 5. clause, 6. noun, 7. noun, 8. noun, 9. clause, 10. noun, 11. noun, 12. noun, 13. clause, 14. clause
- Ex 6. - 1. resulting in, 2. resulted from, 3. the result of, 4. As a result of, 5. resulting, 6. result in, 7. the end result, 8. As a result
- Ex 7. - 1. to, 2. of, 3. from, 4. to, 5. of, 6. in, 7. to, 8. by, 9. of, 10. of, 11. to, 12. from
- Ex 8. - 1. result, 2. cause, 3. result, 4. cause, 5. cause, 6. result, 7. cause, 8. cause, 9. cause, 10. result, 11. cause, 12. result
- 9. 1. c, 2. a, 3. h, 4. b, 5. d, 6. f, 7. g, 8. e
- 9. - 1. arriving, 2. Seeing, 3. Blown, 4. forgetting, 5. Working, 6. missing, 7. Taken, 8. taking
- Ex 1. - 1. so, 2. such a, 3. so, 4. such, 5. so much, 6. so, 7. such a, 8. so