Word classes (parts of speech)
|demonstrative pronoun||this, that,|
|stands on its own to represent a noun|
|relative pronoun||that||introduces a defining relative clause|
|demonstrative determiner||this, that,|
|comes before a noun|
|adverb||this, that||says to what extent|
|conjunction||that||introduces a that-clause|
Exercise 1 - Decide which word class (part of speech) each use of that is. There is one of each in the first five questions about the dog, and two of each in the remaining ten.
|1.||What's that? - It's a dog bite. I got it last week.|
|2.||There's the dog that bit me last week.|
|3.||That dog bit me last week.|
|4.||It didn't bite me that hard really.|
|5.||But the fact is that it bit me, all the same.|
|6.||Another ten kilometres? I didn't realise it was that far!|
|7.||Who on earth was that? - That was my father-in-law.|
|8.||You seem to know a lot of people here - Oh, not that many.|
|9.||This is the house that Jack built (nursery rhyme).|
|10.||Look at that man over there. What's he doing?|
|11.||I never said that! What I said was ... .|
|12.||He said that he might be late.|
|13.||Watch out for that cyclist!|
|14.||This is the man that sold us the car.|
|15.||He was so tired that he went straight to bed.|
This, that, these and those as demonstratives (both pronouns and determiners)
- this, these refer to 'here and now'
- that, those refer to 'there and then'
Exercise 2a - Complete the sentences with words from the box.
|1.||tiramisú is delicious; did you make it yourself?|
|2.||meal you cooked last night was wonderful.|
|3.||Can I have some of oranges at the front, please?|
|4.||They look bigger than ones at the back.|
|5.||Remember when we were at university. were the days, weren't they?|
|6.||I used to be quite slim, but days I seem to be putting on a bit of weight.|
|7.||Who was you were talking to just then?|
|8.||Mandy, I'd like you to meet Craig. Mandy, is Craig.|
|9.||Look at people over there. What on earth are they doing?|
|10.||Come and look at puppies in the window. Aren't they sweet?|
|11.||There's a popular current affairs programme on TV called ' week'.|
|12.||' was the week that was' was the name of a famous satire show on TV.|
|13.||is a very nice smell coming from the kitchen. What's for lunch?|
|14.||Come and look at . It's a holiday brochure for the Canary Isles.|
|15.||Will you just look at . It's raining again. And just as we were about to go out.|
Exercise 2b - Complete the sentences with words from the box.
|1.||(On the phone) Hi, is Jenny. Is Pete? Hi Pete, how's things?|
|2.||Look out there, it's raining again. The weather in country is awful.|
|3.||(Sniffing) Mmmm. flowers smell gorgeous. I'll go and put them in vase over there.|
|4.||Whatever happened to girl you used to go out with? Iris, wasn't it?|
|5.||You will? has to be the happiest day of my life!|
|6.||Mummy, Daddy. is the girl I'm going to marry. Sally, Mummy and Daddy.|
|7.||(In a shop) Anything else? - No, is all thanks. No, wait a minute I'll have some of sweets here. - So, with the sweets, will be £4.50 all together.|
|8.||Come and listen to on the radio. It's about strikes last week in Noddyland, where we were. I'm never going back to country again.|
|9.||And is all you've got for supper? These sausages and a few potatoes?|
|10.||Well, was some day I had at work today. How was yours?|
|11.||is it. The last report is finished and I can go home now.|
|12.||... and the only free space was at my table. So was how we met.|
More on demonstratives
Exercise 3 - Complete the sentences with words from the box.
|1.||Now tell me all about new job of yours. It sounds absolutely fascinating.|
|2.||I wouldn't exactly compare his manners to of an angel!|
|3.||Do you know what music is they use at the beginning of the show?|
|4.||I don't think much of dress you're wearing. It doesn't suit you at all.|
|5.||For special woman in your life - Mona Lisa Liqueur Chocolates.|
|6.||You've lost lovin' feelin' (The Righteous Brothers)|
|7.||They're not very friendly, new neighbours of ours, are they?|
|8.||Well now, there was beautiful Princess who lived in a tower.|
|9.||His appetite is like of a horse.|
|10.||I do like new Cossack boots you've got on. They look very elegant.|
|11.||'Just the dress to wear for warm summer evenings.'|
|12.||(Hero in swashbuckling movie) Take , you dastardly fellow!|
Demonstrative this and that to refer to people.
- We can use them as determiners in front of nouns:
- This woman in the front of the photo is my aunt.
- That man over there is staring at us.
- These people are talking very loudly!
- Those boys are behaving very badly.
- We can use those, meaning 'those people' instead of 'anybody', but it must be followed by a defining relative clause. This is often reduced.
- Those who want to go on the trip to Villa Adriana need to book now.
- Could those needing a visa please let me know.
- We can refer to people after this is etc, when specifying who someone is or introducing someone:
- Have you met my mother? Mum, this is Peter.
- Who is that standing next to you sister? - Oh, that's John, her boyfriend.
- No, these aren't my grandparents. They're my great-uncle and aunt.
- Those must be your cousins.
- We can refer to people after this is etc, when followed by a nominative relative clause starting with who:
- Mary, this is Peter. This is who I was talking to you about earlier.
- Oh, there's Paul. That's who she's going out with now.
- This is not used very much with these and those.
- We can also refer to people after this is etc, when making a comment about them:
- This is one of the friendliest people I know.
- That's an incredibly tall man over there, the one by the entrance.
- These are some of the most intelligent people in the world.
- Those are very well-behaved childen you have there.
- In this use, this and these seem to be more often used with one of, some of plus a superlative.
- Note - Apart from these constructions with be we don't use them as pronouns except when we're being very rude, when they are stressed. It's a bit like comparing someone to a thing or animal!
- You mean she's marrying that!
- I wouldn't recommend using that in this way!
This and that as adverbs
Exercise 4 - Complete the sentences with words from the box.
|1.||(Showing thumb and forefinger) I came close to hitting him.|
|2.||Did he hit you hard? - Not all hard, really.|
|3.||I didn't imagine it would be cold! It's minus 23 outside.|
|4.||If she's much of an athlete, how come she's out of breath already?|
|5.||Come on, we've come far, we can't turn back now.|
|6.||(Spreading his arms) And the fish I caught was big, but I threw it back of course.|
|7.||If I had known it was far I would've taken a taken a bus, rather than walked. It took me two hours!|
|8.||I'm on Chapter 10 already. I didn't think I'd get far so quickly.|
|9.||If it carries on snowing much we'll be able to go skiing tomorrow.|
|10.||The boss is not bad really, once you get to know her.|
|11.||We don't have to work hard. Just a few hours a day.|
|12.||If I'd known we had to work hard I wouldn't have come on this course.|
The relative pronoun that
The conjunction that to introduce a that-clause
- She said (that) she would probably be late.
- It is very important (that) you attend this meeting.
- Knowing (that) you are a vegetarian, we've prepared a nut roast.
Relative clause or that-clause?
Exercise 5 - Decide whether that in these sentences introduces a relative clause or a that-clause.
|1.||She gave him an explanation that was difficult to criticise.|
|2.||She gave him some explanation that she had been too busy.|
|3.||It was the evidence that he had lied I found so convincing.|
|4.||It was the evidence that was needed to finally convince him.|
|5.||This was the idea that really appealed to me most.|
|6.||It was the idea that we should just give up I found so unappealing.|