Thursday, August 15, 2013

Random-ise: Shakespeare and -ize suffix verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page.

In books published in Shakespeare's day, we can expect the -ize suffix verbs to be spelt with a z, and that seems mainly the case. The only examples of these words I can find spelt with s are a couple of instances of sympathise, and one of warrantise, but here it's a noun. My other area of interest is how many ize-suffix verbs Shakespeare used, and how many of those were new, or relatively so.
Shakespeare seems to have used about thirty different -ize verbs, or variations on them, in about seventy instances, not really so many for such a huge collection of works. Five of them seem more or less unique to Shakespeare: annothanize, monarchize, royalize, sanctuarize, sluggardize.

From Wikipedia

Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, genres he raised to the peak of sophistication and artistry by the end of the 16th century. He then wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, Othello, and Macbeth, considered some of the finest works in the English language. In his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, also known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights.
Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy during his lifetime. In 1623, John Heminges and Henry Condell, two friends and fellow actors of Shakespeare, published the First Folio, a collected edition of his dramatic works that included all but two of the plays now recognised as Shakespeare's. It was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as "not of an age, but for all time."

List of -ize words in Shakespeare

This is a list of all the instances of -ize suffix words I've been able to find in the Project Gutenberg text of the complete works. Click on linked words to see their definitions and origins at Dictionary.com. The dates of origin are from Dictionary.com. Those marked Shak are attributed to Shakespeare in Dictionary.com. Those with *** are possible coinages of his. It should also be noted that the dates of origin attributed to a few of others are also very close to the time Shakespeare's works were written.
agnize1525-35 from Latin
anatomize1400-1500 from Middle French or Medieval Latin
anatomize (2)
anatomiz'd (3)
annothanize***seems to be the only instance of this word, anywhere
authorized (2)1350-1400 from ML (replacing ME from MF)
baptiz'd1250-1300 from LL
bastardizing1580-90 bastard + ize
canonize1350-1400 ME canon + ize
canoniz'd (2)
canonized (2)
catechize (3)1375-1425 LL from G
cauterizing1350-1400 LL from G
cognizance (2)1250-1300 ME from MF (=LL)
eterniz'd 1560-70 ML
gormandize1540-50 MF gourmand + ise
gormandizing
immortaliz'd1560-70 immortal + ize
infamonize - literary, obsolete (Collins)
memorize1585-95 memeor(y) + ize
memoriz'd
marchandizedLate 14C MF
monarchize ***Shak
moralize (3)1350-1400 ML
naturalize1585-95 natural + ize
partialize1585-95 F
particularize1580-95 MF
recognizance1350-1400 OF
recognizances
royalize ***Shak
sanctuarize ***Shak
scandaliz'd (2)1480-90 LL
sluggardiz'd ***Shak
solemnize (2)1350-1400 ML
solemniz'd (4)
solemnized (2)
sympathize (2)1580-90 MF
sympathiz'd
sympathized (2)
temporize (3)1570-80 ML
temporiz'd
temporizer
tyrannize (3)1485-95 LL
unauthorized
warrantize

The strange case of merchandise / merchandize

There are a couple of lines in Sonnet 102 that most sources give as:
  • That love is merchandized, whose rich esteeming,
  • The owner's tongue doth publish every where.
The verb merchandise is rather interesting. There is a noun merchandise
'mid-13c., "trading, commerce;" mid-14c., "commodities of commerce, wares, articles for sale or trade," from Anglo-French marchaundise, Old French marcheandise "goods, merchandise; trade, business" (12c.)' (Online Etymology Dictionary).
There is a corresponding verb from the late 14th century, which could have come from this noun with its French origins, or it might have come into being by adding an -ize ending to the existing English merchant.
So although it is usually seen as belonging to the group of French -ise verbs, it also has a claim to belong to the group of -ize suffix verbs. In dictonaries it is usually listed under merchandise, with some dictionaries giving the -ize as an alternative for the verb (but not the noun).
Incidentally, in this facsimile of Sonnet 102, it clearly appears as : marchandized.

Table of -ize words in context

Search

You can search for words or phrases in Shakespeare here, or try and find them in the facsimile pages linked to below. You can also try the links to Google Book editions, but these are a bit hit and miss. The best idea is probably just to do a standard web search. Clicking on the G on the right will look up the relevant quotation in Google Search.
Links in the left hand column are to facsimile versions from the First Folio (1623) and first quartos. Links in the centre are to whatever edition at Google Books has been selected. Clicking on the G on the right will take you to Google Search.
Select edition in Google Books:
Sonnet 35Authorizing thy trespass with compareG
Sonnet 82Thou truly fair, wert truly sympathizedG
Sonnet 102That love is merchandized, whose rich esteeming, G
Sonnet 150There is such strength and warrantise of skillG
A Lover's complaintHis rudeness so with his authorized youthG
All's well the ends well.
Act I Scene I
which my instruction shall serve to naturalize theeG
All's well the ends well.
Act IV Scene III
I would gladly have him see his company anatomiz'dG
As you like it.
Act I Scene I
but should I anatomize him to thee as he isG
As you like it.
Act II Scene I
Did he not moralize this spectacle?G
As you like it.
Act II Scene VII
The wise man's folly is anatomiz'dG
As you like it.
Act III Scene II
the contract of her marriage and the day it is solemniz'dG
Coriolanus
Act I Scene I
is as an inventory to particularize their abundanceG
Coriolanus
Act IV Scene VI
might have been much better, if he could have temporiz'dG
Comedy of Errors
Act IV Scene I
That by this sympathized one day's errorG
Hamlet
Act I Scene IV
Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearsed in deathG
Hamlet
Act IV Scene VII
No place indeed should murther sanctuarizeG
Hamlet
Act V Scene I
with his statutes, his recognizances, his finesG
Henry IV Part I
Act I Scene III
Live scandaliz'd and foully spoken ofG
Henry IV Part I
Act V Scene I
Theft with the losers let it sympathizeG
Henry IV Part II
Induction
My well-known body to anatomizeG
Henry V
Act V Scene V
Leave gormandizing; know the grave doth gapeG
Henry VI Part I
Act I Scene II
Drive them from Orleans, and be immortaliz'd.G
Henry VI Part I
Act I Scene III
Break up the gates, I'll be your warrantizeG
Henry VI Part I
Act II Scene IV
As cognizance of my blood-drinking hate,G
Henry VI Part I
Act V Scene III
And make this marriage to be solemniz'dG
Henry VI Part II,
Act I Scene II
Are brazen images of canonized saints.G
Henry VI Part II
Act V Scene III
Shall be eterniz'd in all age to comeG
Henry VI Part III
Act III Scene II
which shall in it be memoriz'dG
King John
Act I Scene I
Why then I suck my teeth and catechizeG
King John
Act II Scene I
The rites of marriage shall be solemniz'd.G
King John
Act III Scene I
To solemnize this day the glorious sunG
King John
Act III Scene I
Canonized, and worshipp'd as a saintG
King John
Act III Scene IV
And thou shalt be canoniz'd, CardinalG
King John
Act V Scene II
And will not temporize with my entreatiesG
King John
Act V Scene VII
Is as a fiend confin'd to tyrannizeG
Julius Caesar
Act II Scene II
For tinctures, stains, relics, and cognizanceG
King Lear
Act I Scene II
twinkled on my bastardizing (7)G
King Lear
Act III Scene VI
Then let them anatomize ReganG
Love's Labour's Lost
Act II Scene I
Of Jaques Falconbridge, solemnizedG
Love's Labour's Lost
Act III Scene I
A message well sympathiz'd- a horse to be ambassador for an assG
Love's Labour's Lost
Act IV Scene I
which to annothanize in the vulgarG
Love's Labour's Lost
Act V Scene II
Dost thou infamonize me among potentates?G
Macbeth
Act I Scene II
Or memorize another GolgothaG
Macbeth
Act III Scene IV
Authorized by her grandam. Shame itself!G
The Merchant of Venice
Act II Scene V
Thou shalt not gormandize as thou hast done with meG
The Merchant of Venice
Act II Scene IX
Straight shall our nuptial rites be solemniz'dG
The Merchant of Venice
Act III Scene II
And, when your honours mean to solemnizeG
Much Ado About Nothing
Act I Scene I
Well, you will temporize with the hoursG
Othello
Act I Scene III
I do agnize a natural and prompt alacrityG
Othello
Act III Scene IV
I will catechize the world for himG
Othello
Act IV Scene I
An unauthorized kissG
Othello
Act V Scene II
With that recognizance and pledge of loveG
Richard II
Act I Scene I
Should nothing privilege him nor partializeG
Richard II
Act I Scene II
To monarchize, be fear'd, and kill with lookG
Richard II
Act V Scene I
For why, the senseless brands will sympathizeG
Richard III
Act I Scene III
To royalize his blood I spent mine ownG
Richard III
Act III Scene II
moralize two meanings in one wordG
Romeo and Juliet
Act II Scene II
Call me but love, and I'll be new baptiz'dG
Taming of the Shrew
Act Iv Scene IV
I pray thee moralize themG
The Tempest
Act V Scene 1
Of these our dear-belov'd solemnizedG
Timon
Act V Scene I
Be as a cauterizing to the root o' th' tongueG
Titus Andronicus
Act III Scene II
Is left to tyrannize upon my breastG
Titus Andronicus
Act IV Scene III
On him that thus doth tyrannize o'er meG
Troilus and Cressida
Act II Scene II
And fame in time to come canonize usG
Troilus and Cressida
Act IV Scene IV
If I could temporize with my affectionsG
Twelfth Night
Act I Scene V
I must catechize you for it, madonnaG
Two Gentlemen of Verona
Act I Scene I
Than, living dully sluggardiz'd at homeG
Two Gentlemen of Verona
Act II Scene VII
I fear me it will make me scandaliz'dG
The Winter's Tale
Act I Scene II
Or else a hovering temporizer thatG

-ize suffix words spelt with s in Shakespeare

Sonnet 150There is such strength and warrantise of skill,G
Henry V
Act III Scene VII
Just, just! and the men do sympathise with the mastiffsG
Troilus and Cressida
Act I Scene III
As rous'd with rage, with rage doth sympathiseG

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First Folio versions

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