Saturday, September 7, 2013

Random-ise: The Quarterly Review, -ize verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page. For more on the spelling of -ize verbs in periodicals, see the Periodicals start page.

The Quarterly Review 1809 - 1967

The Quarterly Review was founded in 1809, to act as a counterbalance to the Whig Edinburgh Review. The founders included George Canning (later a Conservative Prime Minister), Robert Southey (later Poet Laureate) and the novelist Sir Walter Scott, and it was published by the eminent London publisher John Murray. It became one of the 19th century’s most influential journals.
Quarterly Review Org
(John Murray II) launched ... the Quarterly Review in 1809, with William Gifford as its editor. He bought the publishing business of William Miller (1769–1844), and migrated to 50 Albemarle Street. Literary London flocked to his house, and Murray became the centre of the publishing world. It was in his drawing-room that Scott and Byron first met.
Wikipedia
The Quarterly Review was revived in 2007 and appeared in print till 2011, when it went Internet only.

John Murray

The Quarterly Review apparently played an important role in launching the career of Jane Austen (although not, perhaps, in the way we would understand the expression today). For her fourth book, Emma, published at the end of 1815 Austen chose John Murray as her publisher. Austen wrote of Murray in a letter - 'he is a Rogue of course, but a civil one'. Murray also published work by Walter Scott and Lord Byron.

Searching at Google Books

The good news is that there are plenty of volumes available at Google Books, although finding them all is not as easy as you might think. For some reason it doesn't just come up with page after page of volumes. The bad news is that searching Google Books is a fairly lengthy process. In an HTML file you can search for any word containing ize, ized, izing, ization for example. But Google Books Search only finds exact whole words. Searching for criticize, for example, won't even bring up criticized.
As I can't do a general search for all -ize verbs, I've chosen ten commonly used -ize verbs and their variations, which gives us use of participles as well as standard verb forms, and in six of the ten, -ization nouns. The Google count figures are for pages with the relevant words. The actual count could be bigger. I've taken Google's figures except where I spot a French word being used, which would boost the s figures.
Google Books treats the volumes I've been looking at in one of two forms. Most out-of-copyright books are in Full View, which means you can open them up to read, download them as PDFs or in e-book format etc. All the volumes up to Volume 131 (1877) are of this type. The later volumes, however, only exist in Snippet View, where you can get search results, but you can't open up pages. Most importantly for my purposes, you can't open up the title pages with its information regarding publisher, place of publishing and printer.
There is meant to be a search facility at the Quarterly Review Archive, but I didn't find it particularly helpful. A search for 'organized', probably one of the most commonly used of the -ize verbs at the Quaterly Review, for example, comes up with one instance (compared with over a hundred in just the 24 volumes I've looked at), with none at all for 'organised'.

Observations on the treatment of -ize verbs at the QR

  • For much of the nineteenth century, there doesn't seem to have been any editorial policy regarding the use of z or s in -ize suffix verbs.
  • From the start of publication in 1809 to about 1877, there is a noticeably steady drift from z to s. Although z made a bit of a comeback in Volume 131 and especially in Volume 133, this trend continued until approximately the end of the 1870s.
  • In the 1880s and possibly 1890s, there appears to have been a definite policy in favour of z.
  • But by 1905, this seems to have been reversed, and s was used almost exclusively (at least one of the two instances in Vol 203 appears to be an advertisement.
  • By 1958, we're back with z.

Why the dramatic changes?

The answer to this is anyone's guess. Who was responsible for these decisions - writers, sub-editors, publisher or printer? I simply don't know. For much of the nineteenth century it looks like a free-for-all, although at certain times there seems to have been a deliberate policy (in one direction or the other).
I've listed the editors below (from Wikipedia), but I can't see any connections there. William Smith (Vols 122-177) seems to have presided over both extremes.
For much of its life, the Quarterly Review was printed by one firm of printers, William Clowes of Stamford Street, London, from Volume 36 in 1827 to at least Vol 219 in 1913 (although I haven't checked every volume). Before that it had been C.Roworth of Bell Yard, Temple Bar. So I don't think we can put it down to change of printer either.
Clowes was apparently a pioneer of the steam-powered printing press, and he moved into new premises in 1827, the same year he started printing the Quarterly Review.
(these premises) in Duke Street, Blackfriars, ... became the largest printing works in the world, printing a wide variety of works and employing over 500 workers directly.
Wikipedia

List of Nineteenth Century editors (from Wikipedia)

William Gifford February 1809 – December 1824 1-31
John Taylor Coleridge March 1825 – December 1825 31-33
John Gibson Lockhart March 1826 – June 1853 33-93
Whitwell Elwin September 1853 – July 1860 93-108
William Macpherson October 1860 – January 1867 108-122
William Smith April 1867 – July 1893 122-177
John Murray IV October 1893 – January 1894 177-178
Rowland Edmund Prothero April 1894 – January 1899 178-189
George Walter Prothero April 1899 – October 1900 189-192

Main table comparing -ize verbs spelt with a z and with an s.

-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-izationtotal-ise-ised-ising-isationtotal
1809 Vol 1 2747821103 41610131
1816 Vol 14 173721066 145
1826 Vol 33 16384967 123
1833 Vol 49 9327755 6511
1836 Vol 57 112511754 417122
1848 Vol 83 93534289 272110664
1853 Vol 94 72832260 1046102591
1869 Vol 126 81119 2363815109
1869 Vol 127 212510 2646534111
1870 Vol 128 93113 2572828133
1871 Vol 130 71932150 2853745133
1871 Vol 131 132873585 213392184
1872 Vol 133 26531327119 9215237
1874 Vol 136 442313 39771130157
1875 Vol 138 46818 2980634149
1877 Vol 143 123 24541246136
1877 Vol 144 112 42601147160
1880 Vol 149 2357644130 4116
1891 Vol 172 371031030180 39214
1905 Vol 203 22 391091060218
1907 Vol 206 0 38872082227
1913 Vol 219 0 42761344175
1923 Vol 240 0 26421425107
1958 Vol 296 3271860171 11

A comparison between two editions of Vol 33 1826

Google have two editions of the same volume, one published in London and one in Boston, Mass. There is virtually no difference between these editions - one criticise changed to criticize. The rest can probably be put down to the search process.
-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-izationtotal-ise-ised-ising-isationtotal
London 16384967 123
Boston 14384965 213

Breakdown by -ize verbs and their variations

You can check the instances at Google Books by clicking on the numbers. Up to Vol 131 this will give you a full view and you'll be able to open up the pages. Later volumes will give search results only.

Vol 1 - February & May 1809 ('London printed, reprinted New York 1810')

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 111
authorise 6523
characterise 8513
civilise 222161
criticise 23213
monopolise 11
organise 1314
realise 621
recognise 177
sympathise 82
totals 2747821 416101

Vol 14 Oct 1815 & Jan 1816

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 12
characterise 31
civilise 1529
criticise 1
legalise 11
monopolise 1
organise 1311
recognise 8122
sympathise 41
totals 1737210 14

Vol 33 Dec 1825 & March 1826 (Published in London)

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 11
authorise 27
characterise 12
civilise 99
criticise 11
monopolise
organise 82
realise 22
recognise 691
sympathise 3111
totals 163849 12

Vol 33 Dec 1825 & March 1826 (Published in Boston)

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 11
authorise 26
characterise 12
civilise 99
criticise 11
monopolise
organise 82
realise 22
recognise 510
sympathise 3111
totals 143849 21

Vol 49 April July 1833

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 11
characterise 491
civilise 14151
criticise 1
monopolise 2
organise 32
realise 241
recognise 12242
sympathise 111
totals 93277 65

Vol 57 Sep & Dec 1836

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 11
authorise 31
characterise 123
civilise 57
criticise 121
monopolise 21
organise 691
realise 412
recognise 3438
sympathise 31
totals 1125117 4171

Vol 83 June & Sept 1848

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 14111
characterise 1532
civilise 920123
criticise 41
monopolise
organise 1122022
realise 5122231
recognise 5113124
sympathise 121
totals 935342 2721106

Vol 94 Dec 1853 Mar 1854

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 31
characterise 1425
civilise 131411119
criticise 111
monopolise
organise 317315
realise 11111711
recognise 5714161
sympathise 5
totals 728322 10461025

Vol 126 Jan & Apr 1869

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 26
characterise 111
civilise 1463
criticise 11
monopolise
organise 5711518
realise 5914
recognise 11254
sympathise 31
totals 811 2363815

Vol 127 1869

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 3
characterise 113
civilise 46112
criticise 1
monopolise 2
organise 29219
realise 21333
recognise 1318
sympathise 11621
totals 2125 2646534

Vol 128 Jan & Apr 1870

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 71121
characterise 1232
civilise 10117
criticise 121
monopolise 11
organise 1218211
realise 11681
recognise 1026
sympathise 32
totals 931 2572828

Vol 130 January & April 1871

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 111
authorise 1141
characterise 1
civilise 87714
criticise 111
monopolise
organise 213712428
realise 6128102
recognise 71116
sympathise 1111
totals 719321 2853745

Vol 131 Jul & Oct 1871

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 11
authorise 22
characterise 421
civilise 4848
criticise 1211
monopolise 1
organise 291255413
realise 14214
recognise 6716152
sympathise 3112
totals 1328735 2133921

Vol 133 1872

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 12
authorise 8113
characterise 41
civilise 71531
criticise 231
monopolise 211
organise 510311
realise 3213721
recognise 9172683
sympathise 51
totals 26531327 92152

Vol 136 1874

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 111
authorise 1111
characterise 14
civilise 810
criticise 1
monopolise
organise 112215219
realise 116521
recognise 2226332
sympathise 1312
totals 4423 39771130

Vol 138 1875

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 61
characterise 12
civilise 31118113
criticise 51
monopolise 1
organise 2411218
realise 217312
recognise 2110382
sympathise 24
totals 468 2980634

Vol 143 1877

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 33
characterise 3
civilise 210435
criticise 251
monopolise 11
organise 4939
realise 1422
recognise 10211
sympathise 2
totals 12 24541246

Vol 144 1877

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 421
characterise 221
civilise 18225
criticise 92
monopolise 1
organise 119116
realise 455
recognise 121212
sympathise 41
totals 11 42601147

Vol 149 1880

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 41
characterise 17
civilise 7134
criticise
monopolise 12
organise 18391
realise 6912
recognise 72021
sympathise 7
totals 2357644 411

Vol 172 1891

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 29
characterise 121
civilise 15214
criticise 21
monopolise 1
organise 32461322
realise 131431
recognise 1536213
sympathise 1221
totals 371031030 392

Vol 203 1905

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 24
characterise 55
civilise 11318
criticise 661
monopolise
organise 325233
realise 141854
recognise 13362
sympathise 22
totals 2 391091060

Vol 206 1907

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 26
characterise 1121
civilise 120
criticise 23
monopolise 1
organise 9201157
realise 7924
recognise 15354
sympathise 32
totals 38872082

Vol 219 1913

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 11
authorise 31
characterise 142
civilise 1049
criticise 81
monopolise
organise 4921
realise 1717411
recognise 18242
sympathise 21
totals 42761344

Vol 240 1923

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise 1
authorise 211
characterise 11
civilise 610
criticise 22
monopolise 2
organise 3219
realise 9725
recognise 7237
sympathise 11
totals 26421425

Vol 296 1958

Verb-ize-ise
-ize-ized-izing-ization-ise-ised-ising-isation
apologise
authorise 51
characterise 131
civilise 1141361
criticise 32
monopolise
organise 312117
realise 151725
recognise 8184
sympathise 1
totals 3271860 1

Links

The Quarterly Review at Google Books (Full view versions)

These are the ones I've been able to find, but there are probably more.

Snippet view versions (searchable)

4 comments:

Peter Harvey said...

Congratulations on the detailed research. I seem to remember a big fuss a long time ago, about the 1960s, when the Times changed its house style from -ize to -ise.

George Borrow was very pleased to have The Romany Rye (sequel to Lavengro) published by Murray and referred to him in the book ad Glorious John.

Warsaw Will said...

Thanks Peter. I see the actual quote is 'Such a book would be sure to take; even glorious John himself would not disdain to publish it.' Which suggests that Murray was rather discerning in what he chose to publish.

On the subject of how -ize verbs were treated in George Borrow's books, I've had a quick look.

Lavengro appears to have been originally published by Murray (1851) with mainly z endings, but editions by Macmillan 1900, and T.N.Foulis (Edinburgh) both have s endings throughout.

I haven't been able to find an original edition of The Romany Rye , but Murray's 'definitive' 1900 edition is z-free. Not everyone went the s way however, as the J.M.Dent edition of 1907 uses mainly z endings except for recognise and its variations, which interestingly are also spelt with an s in the First Edition of Lavengro . This suggests to me that the Dent Everyman edition probably took the spelling of the original.

Peter Harvey said...

The introduction to my Romany Rye says that Murray "at last consented to publish the Romany Rye after a series of peremptory notes from the author 'to oblige Mr Borrow'."

I haven't done an exhaustive search but my Kindle edition, transcribed from the 1903 Methuen & Co. edition seems to have -ize only.

Warsaw Will said...

Interesting; thanks for the info.

It's funny how three editions published at roughly similar times should differ (the Everyman one is 1907). I'll be posting what I've found about various Borrow editions at the weekend.

I suppose what I should really do is try and find other books of that period published by the same publishers, to see if there's a pattern.