Saturday, September 21, 2013

Random-ise: the novels of Jane Austen and -ize and -ise verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page.

Jane Austen 1775 – 1817

Image from Wikimedia Commons

The six published novels

  • 1811 - Sense and Sensibility
  • 1813 - Pride and Prejudice
  • 1814 - Mansfield Park
  • 1815 - Emma
  • 1818 - Northanger Abbey
  • 1818 - Persuasion

The novels of Jane Austen and -ize verbs

Different editions of Jane Austen's novels published only a few years apart show in perhaps a more dramatic way than the books of any other writer show the shift from -ize to -ise spelling in British publishing, as well as the inconsistency with which these verbs and their variants had been treated earlier.
In the first editions of her first three books, published between 1811 and 1814 by T.Egerton, -ize suffix verbs have predominantly z endings, although they are far from consistent.
The next three, and a reprint of Mansfield Park, all published by John Murray, have much more consistently z endings.
But when all six novels were republished in 1833 by Richard Bentley in his Standard Novel series, they had almost exclusively s endings.
Sense and Sensibility7217
Pride and Prejudice5723
Mansfield Park15913124
Northanger Abbey41112
The figures for Egerton and Murray are lower because I haven't been able to find all their books at Google Books, whereas the figures for Bentley are complete. But the important thing is the difference in ratios. NB Bentley's Pride and Prejudice is from 1853, but the rest are from 1833.

A story of three publishers

Austen's first three novels were published by T.Egerton, of Whitehall, the first two as being by 'A Lady', the third as by 'the author of Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice'.
With the success the her first three novels, Austen moved in 1815 to John Murray of Albemarle Street, a well-known publisher of books and of his own Quarterly Review, an influential peiodical. Murray published Austen's last three novels, as well as a reprint of Mansfield Park. It was only in the last two, published together posthumously, that Austen was identified as the author, in a preface by her brother.
'In 1832, publisher Richard Bentley purchased the remaining copyrights to all of Austen's novels and, beginning in either December 1832 or January 1833, published them in five illustrated volumes as part of his Standard Novels series. In October 1833, Bentley published the first collected edition of Austen's works. Since then, Austen's novels have been continuously in print.'(Wikipedia)

Richard Bentley and the Standard Novel series

In 1831 the publisher Richard Bentley and his partner Henry Colburn started publishing 'The Standard Novels and Romances - the cheapest library of entertainment published' (see Links below). By 1835, they were up to their fortieth volume, and the total eventually reached 126. This collection consisted of single-volume versions of novels which had previously been published in three volume sets, and at a third of the price of the originals.
As well as bringing authors like Jane Austen to a much larger audience, the series also introduced British readers to American writers like James Fenimore Cooper, whose The Pilot opened the series.
The series was 'extraordinarily successful' (Wikipedia) and other publishers quickly got in on the act, with a series called 'The Novelist: A Collection of the Standard Novels' being published by Foster and Hexhall, the first volume appearing in 1839. This included Fenimore Cooper's The Pilot, which had been Volume One of Bentley's Standard Novels, as well as The Last of the Mohicans and The Hunchback of Notre Dame, both of which had also been previously published in Bentley's series. Blackwood's Standard Novels, seeming to date from 1842, soon joined the fray.

See note below on Bentley's Miscellany and the Dickens connection

The quantities of -ize suffix verbs and French-based -ise verbs compared

Although Jane Austen uses 22 -ize suffix verbs and their variations, compared with only 12 French-based -ise verbs, the total number of instances of the latter is almost three times that of the former - 315 to 110, over 100 for surprised alone. The s endings would therefore have been much more familiar to editors and printers.
  • -ize suffix verbs and their variations
    110 instances of 39 words from 22 verb families
  • French-based -ise verbs and their variations
    315 instances of 35 words from 12 verb families
-ize suffix verbs French-based -ise verbs
aggrandise (1) advertised(3)
apologise (13) advertising(1)
apologised (5) advise(40)
apologising (8) advised (15)
authorise (7) adviser (5)
authorised (13) advisers (1)
authorising (3) advising (6)
characterise (1) apprised (1)
civilized (1) comprise (3)
criticise (1) comprised (10)
criticising (1) compromise (2)
eulogized (1) compromised (1)
familiarise (1) compromising (1)
familiarised (2) despise (7)
harmonise (1) despised (7)
harmonised (1) despises (1)
idolized (2) despising (3)
immortalised (1) devise (4)
modernised (1) devised (2)
monopolize (1) disguise (2)
moralised (1) disguised (2)
moralising (2) exercise (9)
moralize (1) exercised (2)
particularise (2) exercising (3)
patronised (3) revised (1)
patronize (1) surmise (3)
realised (5) surmised (3)
realization (1) surmises (1)
recognise (1) surmising (1)
recognised (3) surprise (1)
recognising (2) surprise (14)
rhapsodising (1) surprised (108)
sympathise (6) surprises (2)
sympathised (2) surprize (6)
sympathiser (1) surprized (32)
sympathising (2) 
temporizing (1) 
tranquillise (4) 
tranquillised (6)  
unmodernized (1) 
total110 total315

A quick note on surprize(d)

These appear in the Project Gutenberg edition of Emma, provenance unknown. More detail at the section on Emma, below.

Random thoughts

The more I look at this issue, the more I'm inclined to think that the driving force in the change to s was a desire for consistency. In the US, they went one way, following Noah Webster, while in Britain we went the other.
Perhaps British publishers (or maybe their printers) thought it easier to follow the pattern of the French -ise verbs that still predominated (at a ratio of nearly 3:1 in Jane Austen's novels).And it certainly makes spelling easier! But I've yet to see any evidence that this was a deliberate change based on a misunderstanding of the -ize suffix's etymology. Personally I think the reason was much more likely to have been purely a practical one in the printer's workshop.

Sense and Sensibility 1811

While not entirely consistent, the 1811 First Edition leans heavily towards z, with a ratio of 7 to 2 in the instances I've found (unfortunately, Google Books doesn't seem to have the third volume. The 1833 Standard Novels edition uses s throughout. In addition, the noun aggrandisement is spelt with an s in both 1811 and 1833 editions.

Suffix -ize verbs - 17 instances of 13 verbs

Vol 1
Vol 2

French -ise verbs - 54 instances of 13 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

Volume 1
and so earnestly did she despise her daughter-in-law for it, that,
may consider it with some surprise. Edward is very amiable, and
ecstatic delight which alone could sympathize with her own, was estimable
fever, you would not have despised him half so much. Confess,
in their face.— Chagrined and surprised, they were obliged, though unwillingly,
sprung from his appearance, he apologized for his intrusion by relating
books, the same passages were idolized by each—or if any difference
"That he is patronised by YOU," replied Willoughby, "is
Elinor could not be surprised at their attachment. She only
imprudence and want of thought, surprised her by its extravagant testimony
noticing them ran up stairs. Surprised and alarmed they proceeded directly
Mrs. Smith has this morning exercised the privilege of riches upon
by Marianne. Her mother was surprised, and Elinor again became uneasy.
"A fortnight!" she repeated, surprised at his being so long
Mrs. Dashwood was surprised only for a moment at
attention; but when have I advised you to adopt their sentiments
Elinor looked surprised at his emotion; but trying
Marianne was surprised and confused, yet she could
the same inevitable necessity of temporizing with his mother. The old
She surprised Elinor very much as they
"You surprise me very much. Colonel Brandon
therefore unfortunately founded, when she advised her daughter not to care
therefore I am a little surprised, I confess, at so serious
would not be so much surprised. Mrs. Ferrars is certainly nothing
Ferrars!—I confess myself so totally surprised at what you tell me,
to it. What would you advise me to do in such
a positive engagement, could be authorised by nothing else; for a
family connections, which had often surprised her, the picture, the letter,
Volume 2
its subject. I will not apologize therefore for bringing it forward
to say to me, 'I advise you by all means to
wish it. So I would advise you two, to set off
the Miss Dashwoods again. So surprised at their coming to town,
He looked surprised and said, "I beg your
have tried to sooth and tranquilize her still more, had not
assure you that nothing would surprise me more than to hear
"How surprised you will be, Willoughby, on
Elinor advised her to lie down again,
dining with them. Elinor even advised her against it. But "no,
earlier, was satisfied with the compromise; and Elinor, as she swallowed
and without a friend to advise or restrain her (for my
been expected by all to comprise at least five or six
two ladies, than what was comprised in three or four very
back; his friends may all advise him against it. But some
mutually attracted them; and they sympathised with each other in an
his eager civilities with some surprise, but much more pleasure. They
courted its continuance, without thoroughly despising them all four.
kindness which they wanted to monopolize. Though nothing could be more
times, she feared they would despise her for offering. Miss Steele
situation; and it seemed rather surprising to him that anybody could
me, and be happy. I advise every body who is going
which he seemed to be apologising for the badness of his
By which the Colonel was surprised to find that SHE was
farewell card; and she, after apologising for not returning herself, had
after the first ebullition of surprise and satisfaction was over, "and
but to hear a man apologising, as I thought, for a
"You surprise me; I should think it
am not in the least surprised at it; from his style
well able to assist or advise Miss Dashwood in any emergence.
"Mr. Willoughby, I advise you at present to return
"Even so. You would be surprised to hear how often I
turns both pleased and pained, surprised and not surprised, was all
and pained, surprised and not surprised, was all silent attention.
leaning on Elinor's arm, was authorised to walk as long as
than to expect them. She recognised the whole of Lucy in
in possession of the living, surprised her a little at first.
us, and should not be surprised to see him walk in
how soon an opportunity of exercising it occurred, in what manner
human mind to be easily familiarized with any change for the
Edward's name, which does not surprise us; but, to our great
excuses, seemed the only person surprised at her not giving more.
was almost ashamed of having authorised; and even the Dashwoods were

Pride and Prejudice 1813

Egerton's 1813 edition seems all over the place, with a 5/7 ratio of z to s. Bentley's 1853 edition is all s.

Suffix -ize verbs - 22 instances of 13 verbs

Vol 2
Vol 3
authorised(2) + z (1)13

French -ise verbs - 62 instances of 14 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

girl, and their brother felt authorized by such commendation to think
looked at her only to criticise. But no sooner had he
Mr. Darcy who, though extremely surprised, was not unwilling to receive
get the better of it; advised her to return to bed,
Eliza Bennet," said Miss Bingley, "despises cards. She is a great
"But I would really advise you to make your purchase
"I am no longer surprised at your knowing only six
Everybody was surprised, and Darcy, after looking at
might have the pleasure of despising my taste; but I always
a reel at all—and now despise me if you dare."
dance at Netherfield? I would advise you, before you determine on
Elizabeth was surprised, but agreed to it immediately.
daughters, and beg leave to apologise for it, as well as
what can he mean by apologising for being next in the
offended; but he continued to apologise for about a quarter of
She had even condescended to advise him to marry as soon
Mrs. Bennet and her daughters apologised most civilly for Lydia's interruption,
returned with as much more, apologising for his intrusion, without any
Elizabeth could not but look surprised.
"You may well be surprised, Miss Bennet, at such an
had supposed him to be despising his fellow-creatures in general, but
amusement; and she was rather surprised to find that he entertained
Mr. Collins, awkward and solemn, apologising instead of attending, and often
Bingley; what it contains has surprised me a good deal. The
the first sentence aloud, which comprised the information of their having
the suddenness of their removal surprised her, she saw nothing in
of being his wife, I advise you by all means to
was at the same time exercising great self-denial, for he was
withdrew; all of them equally surprised that he meditated a quick
"Why should you be surprised, my dear Eliza? Do you
replied Charlotte. "You must be surprised, very much surprised—so lately as
must be surprised, very much surprised—so lately as Mr. Collins was
and doubting whether she was authorised to mention it, when Sir
Jane confessed herself a little surprised at the match; but she
not have been at all surprised by her ladyship's asking us
"I am the less surprised at what has happened," replied
and her daughter. I would advise you merely to put on
your mother, I should have advised her most strenuously to engage
every fish he won, and apologising if he thought he won
looked at their work, and advised them to do it differently;
on finding her alone, and apologised for his intrusion by letting
Elizabeth looked surprised. The gentleman experienced some change
from her walk. The tete-a-tete surprised them. Mr. Darcy related the
when, instead of being again surprised by Mr. Darcy, she saw
which had been used to characterise her style, and which, proceeding
about the room. Elizabeth was surprised, but said not a word.
and preparing her to be surprised, she related to her the
attempted. Mr. Darcy has not authorised me to make his communication
she could not help secretly advising her father not to let
will not be censured and despised wherever they are known, and
grow many degrees worse, without authorising us to lock her up
imagination, a visit to Brighton comprised every possibility of earthly happiness.
He looked surprised, displeased, alarmed; but with a
all my expectations of pleasure realised. A scheme of which every
slow manner, they were again surprised, and Elizabeth's astonishment was quite
disgraceful companions. That he was surprised by the connection was evident;
"I was never more surprised than by his behaviour to
Mrs. Gardiner was surprised and concerned; but as they
up the street. Elizabeth immediately recognizing the livery, guessed what it
was known would not have recognized it for Mr. Darcy. There
missent elsewhere. Elizabeth was not surprised at it, as Jane had
Be so kind as to apologise for us to Miss Darcy.
its ill success might, perhaps, authorise her to seek the other
Mrs. Collins and myself sincerely sympathise with you and all your
and disgrace. Let me then advise you, dear sir, to console
proceed to Longbourn. Elizabeth was surprised, however, that Wickham should consent
a little writing will not comprise what I have to tell
you. I must confess myself surprised by your application; I did
Your uncle is as much surprised as I am—and nothing but
whom he must abominate and despise, and where he was reduced
he had the means of exercising it; and though she would
"I was surprised to see Darcy in town
that the business had been compromised accordingly."
course all intending to be surprised; but their astonishment was beyond
will be censured, slighted, and despised, by everyone connected with him.
of which we have been advertised by the same authority. Your
Lizzy, I think I have surprised you. Could he, or the
"I advise Mr. Darcy, and Lizzy, and
having him. But let me advise you to think better of
tall!—Oh, my dear Lizzy! pray apologise for my having disliked him
the pains you took to disguise yourself, your feelings were always
in your heart, you thoroughly despised the persons who so assiduously
world, but she could still moralize over every morning visit; and

Mansfield Park 1814

Early publication history

  • 1814 First Edition in three volumes published by T.Egerton
  • 1816 Reprinted in three volumes by John Murray
  • 1833 Republished by in one volume by Richard Bentley
The provenance of the Project Gutenberg version is unknown, but uses s spellings throughout. Luckily Google Books have all three volumes of the First Edition and two out of three of Murray's 1816 reprint, as well as Bentley's 1833 version, so we can get a very good picture of publishing practice at the time.
From the point of view of -ize verbs this is the most interesting of all Austen's books, as we have three publishers involved in a very short space of time, with three very different results.
The original 1814 edition, published by Egerton, leans toward z, but manages less than a 2-1 ratio in its favour.
Although authorise and its variations tend towards s, there doesn't really seem to be any consistency, with 6 being with an s, and 3 with a z. Moreover tranquillise gets spelt with both an s and a z. So it doesn't appear to be systematic according to the particular verb.
Murray's 1816 reprint has consirably cleaned up the discrepacies, in favour of z, with only one rogue s verb, but with Bennet's 1833 version things have swung diametrically in the opposite direction, with a 100% record for s.

Suffix -ize verbs - 24 instances of 14 verbs

Vol 1
Vol 2
Vol 3
Vol 1
Vol 2

French -ise verbs - 64 instances of 19 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

Volume 1
before he had time to devise any other method of assisting
and would, on no account, authorise in my girls the smallest
vain. Mrs. Price seemed rather surprised that a girl should be
her shame in being so surprised, and persuade her to speak
the Miss Bertrams continued to exercise their memories, practise their duets,
Fanny was too much surprised to do more than repeat
the house in the most surprising manner. I declare, when I
enough, and makes it more surprising that the place can have
mere nothing; you would be surprised at its insignificance; and, as
consult with friends and disinterested advisers, than immediately to throw the
not. She was a little surprised that he could spend so
other were soon a little tranquillised by seeing the party in
being so, they would neither authorise the liberty nor run the
"Why should it surprise you? You must suppose me
"I am just as much surprised now as I was at
one. She began to be surprised at being left so long,
as experience and anxiety could authorise. His business was so nearly
three months off. Three months comprised thirteen weeks. Much might happen
to describe! Here's what may tranquillise every care, and lift the
which would of course have immortalised the whole party for at
of the two. I was surprised to see Sir Henry such
you. What is there to surprise you in it?"
to vary the scene, and exercise our powers in something new.
selfishness which, more or less disguised, seemed to govern them all,
and though she could not sympathise in his wish that the
very well, though affecting to despise it; and was too much
you will be a disinterested adviser; and, therefore, I apply to
very fine young man, and advised Fanny to get his picture
now so blended together, so harmonised by distance, that every former
this manner: domesticated among us; authorised to come at all hours,
Fanny, quite surprised, endeavoured to shew herself mistress
not perfect, I shall be surprised. By the bye, I looked
together, of comparing schemes, and sympathising in praise of Fanny's kind
critic, and earnestly desired to exercise it and tell them all
had been a good deal surprised to find candles burning in
before we set off to advise him not to venture: he
Volume 2
her feelings were at all tranquillised, before she had given up
existence. You will think me rhapsodising; but when I am out
she felt quite unequal to surmising or soliciting anything more. Miss
he will be very much surprised that Mrs. Grant should ask
to tell you that will surprise you. Mrs. Grant has asked
and I cannot but be surprised that such an elegant lady
which, suggested by Dr. Grant, advised by Edmund, and warmly urged
her own daring. He was surprised; but after a few moments'
alacrity with which they both advised Mrs. Norris's continuing where she
with authority, "I do not advise your going to Brighton, William,
see only the respectable, elegant, modernised, and occasional residence of a
spoke; and Fanny remained to tranquillise herself as she could. She
am not qualified for an adviser. Do not ask advice of
a ball was no longer surprising to her; she felt it
little with her inclination, by advising her to go immediately to
of each young man might exercise her tender enthusiasm, and that
went. He could not have devised anything more likely to raise
him. Does his staying longer surprise you?"
some way or other continually exercised her patience and forbearance? Her
done already she could not devise, for Miss Crawford certainly wanted
and I told him without disguise that it was very disagreeable
should have been very much surprised had either of my daughters,
I should have been much surprised and much hurt by such
present you have only to tranquillise yourself. Check these tears; they
stronger frame of mind. I advise you to go out: the
about her, which I would advise her to get the better
be sorry, I may be surprised—though hardly that, for you had
part, we must not be surprised at the rest."
with such an education and adviser? Under the disadvantages, indeed, which
Volume 3
readily than her own judgment authorised. There was no resisting so
What chiefly surprised Edmund was, that Crawford's sister,
for the experiment he had devised.
thank and accept. Afterwards, when familiarised with the visions of enjoyment
to Susan, and endeavour to exercise for her advantage the juster
"what a society will be comprised in those houses! And at
Shall I go? Do you advise it?"
"I advise! You know very well what
till you were tired, and advise me till you were still
again directly. I need not particularise. You know the weak side
what our incomes united could authorise. There is comfort, however, even
short of perfect decision, an adviser may, in an unlucky moment,
I saw him draw back surprised, and I was sorry that
ready to hear and to sympathise. Nobody else could be interested
word of it; hear nothing, surmise nothing, whisper nothing till I
herself, nor required Fanny to advise her, to think little of
points than formerly. What I advise is, that your father be
to render him culpable in authorising it; that in so doing
for elegance and accomplishments, the authorised object of their youth, could
be reckoned on. She had despised him, and loved another; and
whose character and manners could authorise a hope of the domestic
the high sense of having realised a great acquisition in the

Emma 1815

Unfortunately, I can't find a First Edition at Google Books, nor can I find any facsimiles of the First Edition, for example at But we have the opportunity to compare two Bentley editions, one from 1833 and a later one from 1882. Were the s's of 1833 just a passing whim? It seems not, as a part from one stray z, the 1882 version is all s as well.
It's a shame we don't know where the Project Gutenberg version has come from, as there are one or two oddities. All the -ize verbs are spelt with an s, except for idolized. But more surprising (although quite common in the eighteenth century), surprise and surprised are overwhelmingly spelt with a z. Including nouns, there are 71 instances of the surprise family with a z, as opposed to a mere 3 with an s. In both the 1833 and 1882 Bentley versions, they are spelt with an s

Suffix -ize verbs - 18 instances of 14 verbs


French -ise verbs - 70 instances of 16 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

"Well! that is quite surprising, for we have had a
love with him, nobody was surprized, except her brother and his
He had, by that time, realised an easy competence—enough to secure
preserves here. I do not advise the custard. Mrs. Goddard, what
impossible that he should have realised any thing yet."
bred men. I should be surprized if, after seeing them, you
"You surprize me! Emma must do Harriet
advice, that you cannot be surprized, Mr. Knightley, at this little
nothing more to say or surmise about Hartfield.
entreat you, Miss Woodhouse, to exercise so charming a talent in
finish it, to have it apologised over as an unfavourable likeness,
thought it? She was so surprized she did not know what
pressed. She read, and was surprized. The style of the letter
say? Dear Miss Woodhouse, do advise me."
I do? What would you advise me to do? Pray, dear
to—but if you would just advise me what I had best
Emma, smiling graciously, "would I advise you either way. You must
Harriet had not surmised her own danger, but the
difficulty in the answer, and advised its being written directly, which
Goddard would be very much surprized if she knew what had
sort of general friend and adviser, and she knew Mr. Elton
I had no hesitation in advising him to marry. He proved
"Certainly," replied he, surprized, "I do not absolutely know
Harriet's equal; and am rather surprized indeed that he should have
all. My only scruple in advising the match was on his
to enlarge her comprehension or exercise it on sober facts; and
"She will not be surprized, papa, at least."
sure I was very much surprized when I first heard she
his father. Some people are surprized, I believe, that the eldest
an unhealthy place. Perry was surprized to hear you had fixed
really at all frightened herself, tranquillised this excess of apprehension by
say; every body was either surprized or not surprized, and had
was either surprized or not surprized, and had some question to
abundance; but she could hardly devise any set of expressions, or
him. He only wanted to aggrandise and enrich himself; and if
Emma was most agreeably surprized.—Mr. Elton's absence just at this
general, and very inadequate to sympathise in an attachment to Mr.
an hour Mr. Weston was surprized and sorry; but then he
ever saw any body more surprized. 'Have you, upon your honour?'
must, in justice to Jane, apologise for her writing so short
week. Every body is so surprized; and every body says the
and returned to her first surmises. There probably was something more
and she was so completely surprized that she could not avoid
drawback of a single unpleasant surmise, without a glance forward at
dancing; and Emma was rather surprized to see the constitution of
disgust towards a girl so idolized and so cried up as
to ask them what they advised her to do, that their
after seeing him, Emma thus moralised to herself:—
Cole, "and I was only surprized that there could ever have
present. They might chuse to surprize her."
she had been used to despise the place rather too much.
am sure; but really quite surprized. Such a very kind attention—and
song took her agreeably by surprize—a second, slightly but correctly taken
"Well—if you advise it.—But (with a smile) if
to make her help or advise him in his work, till
"I am not at all surprized that he should have fallen
"Oh! no—there is nothing to surprize one at all.—A pretty fortune;
I am not to be surprized that Jane Fairfax accepts her
my early walk. I am advised to be out of doors
to say that there are advertising offices, and that by applying
I have to recommend being comprised in, do not spoil them,
dancing, but if he were criticising her behaviour, she did not
set!—Never had she been more surprized, seldom more delighted, than at
Emma was a good deal surprized; but begged her to speak.
whenever you marry I would advise you to do so and
"I am not at all surprized at you, Harriet. The service
can promise. I do not advise you to give way to
Mrs. Weston looked surprized, and said, "I did not
you know, may be safely authorised. It is my party. Leave
what had been achieved, and advise every body to come and
out, his patient listener and sympathiser.
Mrs. Elton insisted on being authorised to write an acquiescence by
in vain, to make them harmonise better. It seemed at first
ungrateful, Miss Woodhouse, for such surprising good fortune—(again dispersing her tears)—but,
his wife sat sighing and moralising over her broad hems with
sport with my curiosity, and exercise my talent of guessing. But
come back, that will rather surprize you."
"You probably have been less surprized than any of us, for
something is not a little disguised, or a little mistaken; but
began to be a little tranquillised and subdued—and in the course
some degree.—She may not have surmised the whole, but her quickness
to think of it, and advised him to think of it
should think it necessary to apologise; but, the truth is, that
the event.—She had been extremely surprized, never more so, than when
five minutes were enough to familiarise the idea to his quickness
all. I never was more surprized—but it does not make me

Northanger Abbey and Persuasion 1818

Northanger Abbey and Persuasion were published together posthumously in 1818 by John Murray as a four volume set, two volumes for each. They were published together in one volume in the Standard Novels in 1833.

Northanger Abbey 1818

Suffix -ize verbs - 13 instances of 10 verbs

Vol 2/2

French -ise verbs - 31 instances of 11 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

a bookseller, it was even advertised, and why the business proceeded
"Why should you be surprised, sir?"
be acquainted, as I am authorized to tease you on this
Thorpe; and Mrs. Allen immediately recognized the features of a former
For a moment Catherine was surprised; but Mrs. Thorpe and her
of one novel be not patronized by the heroine of another,
a chapter from Sterne, are eulogized by a thousand pens—there seems
"Do you indeed! You surprise me; I thought it had
soon. No, no; I shall exercise mine at the average of
and ashamed, was going to apologize for her question, but he
young lady. From such a moralizing strain as this, she was
about you; therefore I would advise you not to listen, or
their conversation, which at once surprised and amused her companion.
after a moment's silence, "how surprised I was to see him
same three people that had surprised her so much a few
Catherine only remained to be apprised of it. She had left
scruple in owning herself greatly surprised by it. But whether her
and was then most agreeably surprised by General Tilney's asking her
Allen; "and I would only advise you, my dear, not to
not, has a mother to advise her. Mrs. Thorpe is too
then?" said Henry, a little surprised.
really thought before, young men despised novels amazingly."
commendation on every subject is comprised in that one word."
with human nature in a civilized state can deny; but in
with ease. Impatient for the realization of all that he hoped
to wait. The needful was comprised in Mr. Morland's promise; his
was to Catherine the most surprising insensibility. The disclosure, however, of
head. You bid me be surprised on your friend's account, and
views: the present was now comprised in another three weeks, and
for him at last. Pray advise him for his own sake,
and much was Catherine then surprised by the general's proposal of
had any right to be surprised, but there was a something
her friend, who with an apologizing look darted hastily by her,
that staircase!" he replied, greatly surprised. "Because it is my nearest
and I am very much surprised. Isabella promised so faithfully to
to him, and he must despise her forever. The liberty which
conviction, she would not be surprised if even in Henry and
young ladies, in a very moralizing strain, to observe that our
they pretended to be quite surprised to see me out. I
there. Catherine's spirits, however, were tranquillized but for an instant, for
of real sensibility began to apologize for his appearance there, acknowledging
young people could not be surprised at a decision like this.
Morland. The event which it authorized soon followed: Henry and Catherine
different title. The manuscript was revised around 1803 and sold to


Suffix -ize verbs - 16 instances of 15 verbs


French -ise verbs - 28 instances of 14 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

neither of them able to devise any means of lessening their
of lessening their expenses without compromising their dignity, or relinquishing their
Lady Russell, were called to advise them; and both father and
have just such resolute measures advised as he meant to see
imagine, who would not be surprised to find themselves in a
order to look at some advertised places in that immediate neighbourhood,
fetch; should not have been surprised if Sir Walter had asked
judgement, submitted to an amicable compromise. Very odd indeed!"
proceed in the treaty, and authorising him to wait on Admiral
what had come freely, had realized nothing. But he was confident
tenderness of manner, be continually advising her in vain. She was
unnecessary in you to be advising me."
and old trees, substantial and unmodernized, and the compact, tight parsonage,
she was not at all surprised at the end of it,
of having one such truly sympathising friend as Lady Russell.
That she was coming to apologize, and that they should have
alienations, removals--all, all must be comprised in it, and oblivion of
unbecoming conjunctions, which reason will patronize in vain--which taste cannot tolerate--which
woman, and a heart to sympathize in any of the sufferings
was unanswered. It would have surprised Anne if Louisa could have
and on being requested to particularize, mentioned such works of our
morning; gloried in the sea; sympathized in the delight of the
fast. Anne was astonished to recognise the same hills and the
of conduct, such readiness to apologize for the past, such solicitude
earnest, that Anne was not surprised to see Mrs Clay stealing
at all." "Ha! he was surprised at that;" and added, "certainly
Buildings must have been rather surprised by the appearance of a
Harvilles; but you will be surprised to hear they have never
did, when we were rather surprised not to find Captain Benwick
you astonished? I shall be surprised at least if you ever
shall hear something that will surprise you. But first of all,
It did not surprise, but it grieved Anne to
and think only of her, apologised for his stay, was grieved
any mad idea of her recognising him so soon as she
the benefit of a person patronised by Lady Dalrymple. Of course
on his side, and this surprises me. A man like him,
Elliot!" repeated Anne, looking up surprised. A moment's reflection shewed her
have heard nothing which really surprises me. I know those who
led by him, and probably despised by him. Mr Elliot, raised
of the others. He little surmised that it was a subject
the invitation which was to comprise all the remaining dues of
same spirit of analogy will authorise me to assert that ours
solitude and reflection might have tranquillized her; but the ten minutes
hardly know," replied Captain Wentworth, surprised.

Bentley's Miscellany and the Dickens connection

Bentley's Miscellany was a periodical, started in by Richard Bentley 1837 and edited by Charles Dickens (under the name 'Boz'), who had recently made his name with Sketches by Boz and Pickwick Papers, both published in 1836.
What I wanted to see was whether this too had a bias towards s, whether this was perhaps a house style, and that indeed seems to have been the case. Using my standard ten verb test for magazines, the ratio in Volume 2 is 49 s to 9 z.

Vol 2 1837


Oliver Twist

This volume of Bentley's Miscellany (available at Google Books) includes Chapters 9-19 of Oliver Twist, which was first published in Bentley's periodical in two- or three-chapter installments, from February 1837 to April 1839, illustrated by George Cruickshank (who also had some articles in the magazine). It looks as though Dicken's second novel first saw the light of day with mainly s spellings, and judging by Volume 1 of the Second Edition, the same happened when it was turned into book form.
Incidentally, there's an edition at Google Books listed as an 1837 First Edition, with mainly z endings, but it turns out to be a later edition, with a facsimile of the title page of the First Edition, and one of the wrapper from an 1846 edition. It also includes American Notes, from 1842, and Pictures from Italy, first published in 1846. This edition also has an introduction by 'Charles Dickens the Younger', who refers in it to 'the last few months of his (Oliver Twist's) author's life', which puts it at 1870 at the earliest. It is not clear either where it was published, but Amazon have one from 1890, which appears to be Vol 12 of a set of the complete works of Dickens. And it seems that such a set was indeed published by George D. Sproul of New York, in 1890. So I think we can discount this for our purposes.



Project Gutenberg

Sense and Sensibility at Google Books

Pride and Prejudice at Google Books

Mansfield Park at Google Books

Emma at Google Books

Northanger Abbey at Google Books

Persuasion at Google Books

Richard Bentley

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