Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Random-ise: the works of George Eliot, -ize and -ise verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page.

The spelling of -ize suffix verbs in the published works of
George Eliot 1819-1880

Principal works

  • Scenes of Clerical Life 1857-8
  • Adam Bede, 1859
  • The Mill on the Floss, 1860
  • Silas Marner, 1861
  • Romola, 1863
  • Felix Holt, the Radical, 1866
  • Middlemarch, 1871–72
  • Daniel Deronda, 1876

Introduction

In Google Books, I've been able to find original British editions of Stories of Clerical Life, Adam Bede, Felix Holt and Middlmarch. For The Mill on the Floss and Daniel Deronda, there appear to be only American editions, which of course will appear with z endings throughout. For Silas Marner and Romola, there are editions from publication year from Tauchnitz of Leipzig.
All the British first editions of George Eliot's works that I've been able to find were printed with s endings. In other words, the works of one of the greatest of British writers, author of what has been described as the greatest English novel ever - Middlemarch, probably all saw the light of day with s endings.
This gels with other evidence which suggests that much of the change (or perhaps consolidation) to s in book publishing took place mainly in the 1830s and 1840s.
All Eliot's books were first published by William Blackwood, her first published work (Amos Barton, the first of the Scenes of Clerical Life) having appeared in Blackwood's Magazine. The books' appearance in Britain seems to have been quickly followed by publication in Europe by Bernhard Tauchnitz of Leipzig, a prolific publisher of British and American works. But here there is a mixed story, with Silas Marner appearing with all s endings, and Romola, two years later, with all z.

Scenes of Clerical Life 1857-8

These three stories, Eliot's first published work, originally appeared in Blackwood's Magazine in 1857, and were then published by Blackwood in book form in 1858. Google Books has both volumes of the 1858 set, and Blackwood's Magazine for the first half of 1857, containing the first two stories. The magazine also includes several other pieces, both fiction and non-fiction.
  • Blackwood's 1857 Vol 81 Jan-June (American Edition Vol 44)
    • No.1 The Sad Fortunes of Amos Barton
    • No.2 Mr Gilfil's Love Story
  • Scenes of Clerical Life Vol 1/2, 1858 William Blackwood
    • No.1 The Sad Fortunes of Amos Barton
    • No.2 Mr Gilfil's Love Story Part 1
  • Scenes of Clerical Life Vol 2/2, 1858 William Blackwood
    • No.2 Mr Gilfil's Love Story Part 2
    • No.3 Janet's Repentance
In both the magazine and the books, these stories are printed with s spellings throughout. On a test set of verbs and their variants, the whole magazine had 3 z endings compared with 161 s endings.

Suffix -ize verbs - 27 instances of 16 verbs

18571858
Vol 1/2
1858
Vol 2/2
-ize-ise-ize-ise-ize-ise
apostrophize(1)11
catechizing(1)
characterizes(1)1
criticize(1)2
criticizing(1)11
demoralized(1)11
demoralizing(1)1
economize(2)11
harmonized(1)1
martyrizing(1)11
neutralized(2)2
organized(1)1
particularization(1)1
recognize(3)221
recognized(6)633
scandalized(3)33

French -ise verbs - 37 instances of 16 verbs

advertising(2)
advise(3)
comprising(1)
despise(2)
despised(1)
devise(1)
devised(2)
devising(1)
disguise(1)
exercise(2)
exercised(1)
ill-advised(2)
surmise(2)
surmised(1)
surprised(11)
surprising(4)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

errors. So it is not surprising that I recall with a
in front of the gallery, advertising in bold characters the psalm
with a dignified abstinence from particularization, both words and music lying
emphasis; as a hen, when advertising her accouchement, passes at irregular
even perhaps have been rather scandalized if she had descended from
Barton, whom you have already surmised not to have the refined
choir. But he was rather scandalized at my setting the tune
mysteries of a university education, surprised the young ladies of his
for Madams. The persons least surprised at the Rev. Amos's deficiencies
the master of the workhouse, exercised an irate surveillance, and I
plot to prevent you from martyrizing yourself.'
that Milby respectability refused to recognize the Countess Czerlaski, in spite
know, cannot be expected to surmise the details of poverty. She
door, which she at once recognized as the Countess's, and that
Milly was not at all surprised or sorry to see her;
and swollen, she was both surprised and sorry.
excellent apartments at Camp Villa, comprising dining and drawing rooms, three
for an accomplished writer to apostrophize calumny, to quote Virgil, and
herself to her brother, and recognize his wife. This seemed quite
at the gate, which she recognized as Dr Madeley's, the physician
and geography; and Mrs. Farquhar devised many treats for the little
as soon have thought of criticizing the moon as their pastor.
a flippant town youth, greatly scandalized his excellent relatives by declaring
Lady Cheverel recognized the handwriting as Sarti's in
should be mean enough to economize in his cellar, and reduce
beauty; and it is not surprising that in that uninteresting period
most benevolent magician could have devised for him. It is the
woman, whom no one need despise, is an agreeable sensation, comparable
I did. And let me advise you to do so by
you ought not to be surprised that other people can; you
of the critical acumen which characterizes the mutual estimates of the
me beg of you to exercise more control over your feelings;
you to be patient, and exercise your good feelings in this
dreaded that Sir Christopher should surmise or discover the true state
to show her how he despised her; he wanted to make
him I hate him, I despise him, I loathe him!'
along, and whom Mr. Gilfil recognized, in spite of diminished rotundity,
with thankfulness that she had recognized him, he could hardly repress
hour of the day, of devising everything for her comfort, of
to resist the introduction of demoralizing, methodistical doctrine into this parish;
new surgeon attempted, in an ill-advised hour, to settle himself in
was soon developed into an organized opposition. A protest against the
there was not much to criticize in them, for she had
interesting-looking woman. I was quite surprised, for I have heard the
and Dame Ricketts, and the ill-advised appearance of a lean bull-terrier,
to have our young people demoralized and corrupted by the temptations
turning slowly round upon him, recognized the well-known drab waistcoat sleeves,
supply of plumcakes would have neutralized. And Mrs. Dunn was of
It is really surprising that young ladies should not
boys find it difficult to recognize apostolical institutions in their developed
seeing the face that completely harmonized with it, you would have
Thursday, addresses to school-teachers, and catechizing of school-children, with pastoral visits,
on him so far to economize time and strength as to
Janet was surprised, and forgot her wish not
prevision; and it is not surprising that, being thus kept in
of flushed feverish defiance that neutralized her woman's terrors.
felt a buoyant courage that surprised herself, after the cold crushing
his wife lately? I was surprised to hear of her being
have you to teach and advise me, and I could bear
terrible accident, and I don't disguise that there is considerable danger
to be alone; let me advise you to have Mrs. Raynor
Mrs. Linnet was so agreeably surprised by the fact that Dempster
door. The good woman looked surprised to see her at that
that care and tenderness could devise. There were many visitors to

Adam Bede 1859

What is interesting here is that the First Edition, published by Blackwell, used entirely s endings, but the later Project Gutenberg (provenance unknown) while using mainly z (American publication?) has let a couple of s's creep in. This suggests to me that much of this was down to the printers.

Suffix -ize verbs - 21 instances of 19 verbs

1859
Vol 1
1859
Vol 2
1859
Vol 3
-ize-ise-ize-ise-ize-ise
agonized(1)1
agonizing(1)1
civilization(1)1
criticize(1)1
harmonized(1)2
neutralised(1)1
patronising(1)11
patronize(1)1
patronized(1)1
patronizing(1)
recognize(1)1
recognized(3)12
scandalized(1)1
scandalizing(1)1
theorizing(1)1
tyrannized(1)1
unrecognized(1)1
unsympathizing(1)1
vocalization(1)1

French -ise verbs - 47 instances of 17 verbs

advise(3)
compromise(1)
compromising(1)
despise(7)
despised(1)
devise(3)
devised(1)
devising(1)
disguise(1)
disguises(1)
exorcising(1)
ill-advised(1)
improvised(1)
surmised(1)
surprise(2)
surprised(13)
surprising(8)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

dim, for she did not recognize Adam till he said, "Here's
"I'd advise you not to be up
own uttering the thoughts we despise; we see eyes—ah, so like
wealth, and would not be surprised to find that Mr. Irwine
Green!" said Mr. Irwine, looking surprised but quite serene. "What, that
hardly do for me to patronize a Methodist preacher, even if
she would consent to be patronized by an idle shepherd, as
felt that, however ill he harmonized with sound theories of the
allays talking as we must despise the things o' the world
Mrs. Poyser, who professed to despise all personal attractions and intended
the dairy and given several improvised opinions on Swede turnips and
could answer, Mrs. Poyser interposed, scandalized at the mere suggestion that
to chop wood, for he surmised that Dinah would like to
will go through life without scandalizing any one; a seaworthy vessel
few bushes and ditches for exorcising a demon; and it is
this, you will perhaps be surprised to hear that although Gawaine
an afternoon in which destiny disguises her cold awful face behind
possess on earth. Before you despise Adam as deficient in penetration,
eye, there has been a surprising similarity of result. One begins
beauty, so it is not surprising that Mrs. Poyser, with her
The progress of civilization has made a breakfast or
have no reason to be surprised if you have nothing particular
to have his handsome deeds recognized.
Possibly there was some such unrecognized agent secretly busy in Arthur's
security against it. His honest, patronizing pride in the good-will and
prepossessions: we shall hate and despise with that true ruminant relish
Dutch paintings, which lofty-minded people despise. I find a source of
familiarly. Doubtless it will be despised as a weakness by that
would perhaps hear nothing very surprising if you were to inquire
conjectures her small ingenuity could devise to account for Arthur's absence
wonder the secret escapes the unsympathizing observer, who might as well
the ladies. Something that will surprise you," he continued, as they
You will be the less surprised at this opinion in so
vain. He was still more surprised when he saw that Adam
felt his temper rising. A patronising disposition always has its meaner
not in a position to criticize his conduct. And yet he
and a scoundrel, and I despise you."
problem of committing indiscretions without compromising herself. Perhaps the resemblance was
said, with an alacrity that surprised Mrs. Poyser, "I'll go with
did not seem at all surprising that Adam said he would
as he walked home, in devising pitying excuses for her folly,
sign of having renounced her ill-advised wish. But instead of that,
there. You must not be surprised if I cast a covetous
indicated a distant inclination to compromise on Mrs. Poyser's part. "Bethell
Poyser thought she noticed a surprising improvement in Hetty. To be
for Hetty: he could not disguise mystery in this way with
your uncle some news that'll surprise him, Hetty; and I think
Mrs. Poyser was quite agreeably surprised that Hetty wished to go
hoping this, and as he recognized the cottage by the roadside
by a rush of distinct agonizing fears. Hetty had been deceiving
Adam, surprised at the violence of Mr.
scorching sense of disgrace, which neutralised all other sensibility—and Mr. Irwine
said, "I don't like to advise you against your own feelings,
to-night. But I could not advise him to see you, Adam.
memories, the bitter regret, the agonized sympathy, the struggling appeals to
delicate way that Arthur would devise, the lay-impropriator of the Hayslope
To Arthur it was nothing surprising that the servants looked grave
Nothing could have been less surprising to him than a letter
I heard you preach, and recognized him in court to-day, ill
"You're surprised to see me at this
This errand was devised for Totty as a means
The question surprised her, and relieved her by
to meet him. Seth was surprised, and thought something unusual must
new corn-ricks, and at the surprising abundance of fruit on the
novels; prone even to scientific theorizing and cursory peeps through microscopes.
Tim, thinking slightly of David's vocalization, was impelled to supersede that
daughter she had desired to devise a single pretext for complaint.
by Dinah's side, and be tyrannized over by Dinah's and Adam's

Silas Marner 1861

The only suitable edition I could find at Google Books is one published by Bernhard Tauchnitz in Leipzig the same year as its appearance in Britain.
Tauchnitz published over 5000 books by British and American authors at a time when no copyright agreements existed between, for example, Germany and Britain, and where even within Britain, the copyright laws were pretty lax. Tauchnitz, however, was scupulously fair with his authors, paying them correctly, and in fact being authorised by them to publish their books for sale on the Continent. He was also a leading campaigner for international copyright agreements.
Tauchnitz's edition uses s throughout.

Suffix -ize verbs - 11 instances of 9 verbs

1861
-ize-ise
catechise(1)1
civilization(1)1
criticise(1)1
neutralize(1)1
patronizing(1)1
recognize(2)2
recognized(2)2
scrutinize(1)1
soliloquizes(1)1

French -ise verbs - 17 instances of 9 verbs

advise(3)
chastise(1)
chastised(1)
compromise(1)
despising(1)
devising(1)
surprise(1)
surprised(4)
surprising(4)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

lying on the outskirts of civilization—inhabited by meagre sheep and thinly-scattered
the church, and had been recognized in the prayer-meetings; it could
can be a ground of surprise only to those who are
a very good chance. I'd advise you to creep up her
bargains. For which reason I advise you to let me sell
the daily habits were not chastised by the presence of household
farrier—a man intensely opposed to compromise.
triumph, which would tend to neutralize his share of the general
midnight, he was not much surprised to learn that Dunsey had
my turning," said Bryce, not surprised to perceive that Godfrey was
Mr. Macey. "Now, let me advise you to get a Sunday
as this, it is not surprising that Mr. Macey observed, later
not a relation. It seemed surprising that Ben Winthrop, who loved
degree that everybody said was surprising, considering the kinship was on
Gunns could see nothing to criticise except her hands, which bore
of being noisily jovial and patronizing: the large silver snuff-box was
that twitches its nose and soliloquizes in all company indiscriminately—now blinked
his dead wife would be recognized: those were not days of
and let her learn her catechise, as my little Aaron can
capacity for mischief, and for devising ingenious ways of being troublesome,
are some whom we shall recognize, in spite of Time, who
and whom we may not recognize so easily as the master
who has vainly tried to chastise her curly auburn hair into
so that it is not surprising if, in other things besides
a habit with her to scrutinize her past feelings and actions
imagined, for she was presently surprised by the appearance of the
all," said Jane, not altogether despising a hypothesis which covered a
the Red House," said Godfrey, surprised at the difficulty he found

Romola 1863

Unfortunately I can't find an original Blackwood edition of 1863, only one from Tauchnitz of the same year. And despite that publisher's edition of Silas Marner having all s endings, his edition of Romola, from two years lates has excluively z endings. Why would this be so, I wonder.
Some technical problems. Vol 1 search only brings up background files rather than the photogrtapcic record (which don't alwasy have the same spelling), but I've checked all these out, and the seacrh results sem correct. In Vol 2 search appears to have a blind spot near the end.

Suffix -ize verbs - 59 instances of 27 verbs

1863
Vol 1/2
1863
Vol 2/2
-ize-ise-ize-ise
aggrandised(1)1
agonised(2)2
appetising(1)1
authorising(1)1
baptised(3)2
brutalising(1)1
characterised(1)1
civilised(2)1
criticise(1)1
economising(1)1
herborises(1)1
organisation(1)1
organised(2)2
patronising(3)3
philosophising(1)1
recognise(7)24
recognised(20)811
recognises(1)1
scandalised(1)1
scrutinising(1)1
signalised(1)1
stigmatised(1)1
sympathising(1)1
theorising(1)1
tranquillising(1)1
unorganised(1)1
unrecognised(1)1

French -ise verbs - 49 instances of 19 verbs

advise(2)
adviser(1)
apologise(1)
apprise(2)
apprised(1)
despise(4)
despised(6)
despises(1)
despising(2)
devise(2)
devised(3)
devising(1)
disguised(1)
exercised(1)
improvised(1)
surprised(11)
surprises(1)
surprising(7)
well-devised(1)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

the westward-bending river that he recognises; not only the dark sides
Brunelleschi or Michelozzo would have devised something of another fashion than
is easier and pleasanter to recognise the old than to account
Christian? Had he not been baptised in San Giovanni, where the
a pagan philosopher, nor a philosophising pagan poet, but a man
physic, like a gigantic spider disguised in fur and scarlet, waiting
chins.) Besides, your druggist, who herborises and decocts, is a man
the victims of a sad, brutalising chastisement befitting our Dante’s Inferno,
this cloth. Gnaffè! I almost advise you to retain the faded
our seeing the Bardi disastrously signalised only a few years later
rather, such inert students are stigmatised as opici or barbarians according
the spot where Saint Philip baptised the Ethiopian eunuch, or some
give you the secretary’s answer, authorising you to present yourself to
scholar, in reply, was not surprised that Scala found the Age
that were fitly called towers—strangely aggrandised descendants of those torches by
Cecca to help it, had devised for the magnificent Zecca a
got older: he was constantly scrutinising Tito’s mind to see whether
peculiar kind of football—and otherwise exercised themselves. At this mid-day time
Tessa obeyed with a tranquillising sense that life was going
me a kiss,” said Tito, economising time by speaking while he
his visit to Bardo, and apologise for his previous non-appearance. Tito’s
the fulfilment of a secretly recognised claim, to say nothing of
forward with a force that surprises myself. And now, what I
the ears, while an equally surprising carmine tint on the upper
short stout form, which he recognised as that of Monna Brigida,
while a handful of ’prentices, despising the slack entertainment of guerilla
their rear. Among these Tito recognised his acquaintance Bratti, who stood
basket slung before him. Rather surprised at a deportment so unusual
was sure now that he recognised the sharp upward-tending angles of
dress, when his quick eye recognised Tito and Tessa who were
she had been taught to despise, would have fixed itself on
images of the vision she despised jarred and distressed her like
Fra Girolamo, Messer Francesco Cei despises him.”
bit of fooling, which I devised two days ago. Here, Sandro!”
took to his heels with surprising rapidity.
Nello went on, in a sympathising tone, “you are the slave
or window-shutter? No? Well, I advise you to look; for it
a demon, but what Tito recognised as Vaiano’s monkey, made more
a sigh, for the eager theorising of ages is compressed, as
noises, Tito was not much surprised at this mode of defence
of awed admiration at the surprising young signor.
Florentine it was impossible to despise the recommendation of standing well
much desired not to be recognised at that moment. His time
of stones to make a surprising hail from the upper windows.
France were at that time characterised by something approaching to a
with bitterness that a timely, well-devised falsehood might have saved him
have the credit of the improvised welcome. No wonder Tito was
the streets still presented a surprising aspect, such as Florentines had
presence of mind necessary to recognise Baldassarre under that surprise!—it would
Romola; you must not be surprised if I am peevish.”
“You are surprised, are you not? It was
they were not a little surprised at the form of its
the dormant fibres, and he recognised it. That Tito nearly a
like a frosty ache. This despised body, which was to be
helpless: the sharp steel that despised talents and eluded strength would
the gain of the whole civilised world.”
Italian cities and the whole civilised world—I am thinking of my
that the man she was despising as he leaned there in
could only feel that she despised him. The pride and fierceness
the door and saw this surprising little handmaid, with delight in
I shrink from him. I despise him!”
dwelling with a sort of agonised fascination on the wasted face;
had itself awakened. It could devise no torture that would seem
measure which hard-pressed ingenuity might devise. For this reason he had
make a part, though an unrecognised part, of our inheritance, like
of posterity would be very surprising to ancestors, if ancestors could
were just dallying with the appetising delicacies that introduced the more
masterpiece of Antonio Pollajuolo, whom patronising Popes had seduced from his
was more fraternal and less patronising in his manner than Tornabuoni,
is mad. I did not recognise him the first time he
the Duomo. I did not recognise him then; he looks now
necessary to himself—wished he had recognised his father on the steps—wished
sought the garb as a disguise. But you were not suffered
he would look round and recognise Romola; but he was apparently
making any effort to be recognised by him, threw her black
along, could not escape being recognised by some as the welcome
than ever, and seemed to recognise the tallest member of the
of the Santa Trinita, had organised these young men into an
hardness heightened her dread. She recognised Cronaca and two other frequenters
in me. I am not surprised at any exaggerated conclusion you
set your imagination at work devising crimes for me, and you
on, in a tone of agonised entreaty, “if you would once
considerable group, amongst whom Romola recognised Piero di Cosimo, standing on
prepared but for a peculiar organisation which had been started by
The beardless inquisitors, organised into little regiments, doubtless took
Another figure easily recognised by us—a figure not clad
the children. Tito himself was surprised at the growing sense of
she came near him she recognised an old acquaintance of the
good,” said Bratti, in a patronising tone; “then I’ll let you
about knowing. But one thing surprised her as newer than wreaths
words to Tito that would apprise him of her late interview
an outward law, which she recognised as a widely-ramifying obligation, and
of a nature that she despised. All her efforts at union
was weakness only that was despised; power of any sort carried
he had not stayed to recognise in the lamplight. The man
of these lay visitors she recognised a well-known satellite of Francesco
that you will dare to despise the plea of mercy—of justice—of
shrug. “I shall not be surprised if this business shakes her
modern language being in an unorganised and scrambling condition for the
not engaged in concealing the adviser.
and he had lately been apprised that his news was seldom
his villa, I wished to apprise you that a courier carrying
be in bed, and be surprised in his morning sleep.
of sight, they had been recognised.
its character a little. He recognised the Hebrew baby, he was
Benedetto by name, having been baptised in the church on the
what her soul had once recognised as the best. She began
companions, had a disposition to criticise Fra Girolamo’s rule as Prior,
thy pride and vainglory, hast scandalised all the world.” And when

Felix Holt the Radical

There are a few minor discrepancies between the Project Gutenberg text and the Blackwood edition, but this is probably due to the search facility at Google Books, which is not finding certain words withj the search facility, even though I've been able to find them 'manually' by simply looking through the text.
In Volume 1, Google Books has the strange habit of finding verbs under their z spelling, but even though they're shown with s in the text. This confirms that there are in fact two texts, the photographic one you see, and a second plain text file, which is presumably what Google searches.
There's a little duplication between Volumes 1 and 2, for example catechise and catechising, this is because, as I later discovered, Blackwood seem to have published two sets in 1866, one in three volumes, with Volume 1 including Chapters 1-14, and a two volume set, where Volume 1 contains Chapters 1-23.
In any case, the results are clear enough - Blackwoods published these books exclusively with z endings.

Suffix -ize verbs - 34 instances of 23 verbs

1866
Vol 1/2
1866
Vol 2/3
1866
Vol 3/3
-ize-ise-ize-ise-ize-ise
apologize(1)11
apologized(2)1
authorize(1)1
authorized(2)Z11
baptized(2)Z2
catechise(1)11
catechising(1)11
characterized(1)Z1
civilization(2)Z11
criticised(2)11
demoralization(1)1
dramatized(1)1
economized(1)1
organization(1)
organizations(1)Z1
organized(1)Z1
patronizing(1)1
recognize(2)Z11
recognized(6)Z21
satirized(1)
scandalized(1)Z1
temporizing(1)Z1
tyrannize(1)Z11
unrecognized(1)1

French -ise verbs - 56 instances of 25 verbs

advise(3)
advised(1)
adviser(1)
apprise(1)
chastised(1)
compromised(1)
compromising(1)
despise(3)
despised(3)
despiser(1)
despising(1)
devised(2)
devising(1)
disguise(1)
disguised(2)
disguising(1)
exercise(4)
exercised(2)
exercising(2)
ill-advised(1)
much-exercised(1)
revising(4)
surprise(3)
surprised(11)
surprising(4)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

went hand in hand with civilization, and the providential government of
people's thoughts, and ready to despise them as blockheads if their
must in the worst case exercise in order to use the
necessity of controlling himself. He despised all persons who defeated their
truth and freedom to a temporizing mildness of language; but they
it may even be the disguised working of grace within him.
Mrs. Holt's words, that a disguised work of grace might be
when the spirit is much exercised it is difficult to remember
latitude and longitude. If the despiser of Glasgow preachers had been
is true that St. Paul exercised the trade of tent-making, though
"I should think so. I despise every man who has not—or,
mind matter was always completely organized into words. "I speak not
fact that he was inwardly surprised. The minister's daughter was not
should disorder his stomach and despise mankind. His corsairs and renegades,
companion but the tearful and much-exercised Lyddy, his daughter being still
and thinks it weakness to exercise the sublime power of resolved
affection for her father: she recognized the purity of his character,
or about having her child baptized; and on the subject of
merely passive sweetness which usually characterized it. She laid her little
consent to have la petite baptized and brought up as a
was his favorite formula. "I advise you to give it up,
have never yet had any authorized form of prayer.
elder brother Durfey, whom he despised; and he very early began
if these were Latin, he apologized, and translated to the ladies;
conquest. He always opposed and criticised her; and besides that, he
outward position, and she had surprised herself as well as her
by doing what I don't recognize as the best."
only set on foot an organization by which their instruction could
servants. Some plan must be devised by which he could avoid
grocer was prepared to be scandalized by anything that came from
his agitation, and was much surprised; but with a delicacy of
Sir,—I send this letter to apprise you that I have now
caution at command, he would exercise a little in more public
Christian was much surprised, but not now greatly alarmed.
a new and purer devotedness, chastised by humility and watched over
were still less able to advise him as to the wisest
should be glad of an adviser who had more worldly than
Esther was surprised to see her father start
coat tail. He was inwardly exercising great self-mastery—suppressing the thought of
felt it his duty to catechise a little, and also to
of duty somewhat obstructed the catechising, for his mind was so
Jermyn was surprised at the little man's eagerness.
opportunity; and that, far from despising gratitude, they regard it as
often oblige us to an advised neglect of what is less
had come forward. Among these ill-advised persons the one whose attempt
with pulpits, from whence to tyrannize over the ears of men,
sound votes, that'll stand the Revising Barrister. Debarry at the top
of the property, and had compromised your safety by an attempt
you that you should be recognized as Henry Scaddon, your denial
at which she found herself devising little schemes for attaining that
which she was bent on disguising.
Mrs. Holt came back and apologized.
retrograde—losing all the results of civilization, all the lessons of Providence—letting
him well with references. I advise him to read only, and
by his appearance. She has despised his betters before now; but
in duration, yet seem to comprise a long history of terror
the circumstances was the least compromising to the Church. Sir Maximus,
approaching. The presence of the Revising Barrister in Treby was not
him, the existence of the Revising Barrister was like the existence
to be contemplated, and not criticised. Mr. Pink professed a deep-dyed
already paid for by the recognized benefit of Garstin's existence as
and not strong, but Felix recognized the fluency and the method
he was groaned at and satirized according to a formula, in
the market-place, feeling good-natured and patronizing toward all political parties, and
to him the impossibility of revising an electioneering scheme once begun,
"You will probably be surprised, sir, at my coming to
"You will be surprised to hear, sir, that she
married until or unless some surprising chance presented itself; and now
to the point as to surprise Harold. When he showed her
so we may learn to exercise hope and faith toward one
there, you would have been surprised by a certain grandeur which
most frequently gave him—for she dramatized under the inspiration of a
with a statement of many surprising things, showing that I was
when Mrs. Transome did not authorize them by beginning to give
lightly up-stairs. She wished to surprise her father by this visit,
"Something should doubtless be devised to lighten the loss and
on this occasion, would be surprising but for the constant experience
withdraw them. Can a man apologize for being a dastard?—And I
had lost the citizenship which authorized him to plead the right;
a blue woollen comforter. Esther recognized the pair too well, and
Harold, in a tone of surprised yet thorough belief, and looking
the good Lord might have economized in their case that common-sense
Esther would not have been surprising, even if it had been
expression on his face that surprised her.
there is room for much unrecognized action of diligent persons who
and what he considered the demoralization of the workmen by treating.
to the level of all recognized honorableness, he had the powerful
this point not to be exercising any painful self-conquest in acting
the old baronet would not recognize Harold by more than the

Middlemarch 1871 Books I-IV

I've been able to find two British-published editions at Google Books, Volume 1 of the 1871 First Edition published by Blackwood, and the first volume of a (two-volume?) set published by Collins,illustrated by A.A.Dixon, an Edwardian illustator, which could be from any time from about 1905 on.

Suffix -ize verbs - 35 instances of 26 verbs

1871
Bks I-II
Collins
Bks I-IV
-ize-ise-ize-ise
apologize(1)
apologized(1)
characterized(1)11
civilization(1)11
criticises(1)
crystallizing(1)
familiarized(1)
improvisation(1)11
long-recognized(1)1
monopolized(1)1
moralizing(1)11
organizing(1)1
particularize(1)
patronize(1)1
recognize(7)15
recognized(4)34
recognizes(1)1
recognizing(1)11
scrutinize(1)11
scrutinizing(1)11
sermonizing(1)1
symbolized(1)1
sympathize(1)11
theorized(1)11
theorizers(1)1
utilized(1)1

French -ise verbs - 48 instances of 22 verbs

advise(4)
advised(3)
apprise(1)
catechise(1)
comprised(1)
compromising(1)
despise(2)
despised(2)
despises(1)
devise(1)
devised (1)
devising(1)
disguised(1)
disguising(1)
exercise(1)
exercised(3)
exercising(1)
revise(1)
revising(1)
surmised(1)
surprised(16)
surprising(3)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

Celia thought privately, "Dorothea quite despises Sir James Chettam; I believe
him, but of course he theorized a little about his attachment.
marriage under the difficulties of civilization. Has any one ever pinched
should have to repeat or revise his communications of a practical
She would perhaps be hardly characterized enough if it were omitted
religious disposition, the coercion it exercised over her life, was but
and her mind was much exercised with arguments drawn from the
speaking generally. Why do you catechise me about Sir James? It
Sir James's conceiving that she recognized him as her lover. There
small kind of tinkling which symbolized the aesthetic part of the
in the morning. He was surprised, but his surprise only issued
unrestrained ardor: he was not surprised (what lover would have been?)
irritation which every thinker will sympathize with. She was the diplomatist
counter-irritant. And without his distinctly recognizing the impulse, there certainly was
of feeling, and perhaps was surprised to find what an exceedingly
special purpose which I could recognize with some approbation, though without
Celia laughed. She was surprised to find that Mr. Casaubon
what effective shapes may be disguised in helpless embryos.—In fact, the
this lie out of some sermonizing words he may have let
the old man wanted to exercise his power by tormenting him
"At least, Fred, let me advise you not to fall in
Than all your labels cunningly devised
his present visitor, Lydgate, the scrutinizing look was a matter of
an aid to me. You recognize, I hope; the existence of
cheerful time for observers and theorizers than the present; we are
very grain of things, and revising all former explanations. Of this
much light on the power exercised in the town by Mr.
drying-ground, and he would himself scrutinize a calumny against Mrs. Strype.
Rosamond, whom he had easily monopolized in a tete-a-tete, since Mrs.
thought, one need not be surprised to find the rare conjunctions
ambition of making his life recognized as a factor in the
Lydgate was more surprised at the openness of this
everybody's nonsense, till they get despised by the very fools they
never occurred to him to devise a plan for getting half-crowns.
by his apparent determination to patronize Lydgate. The long-established practitioners, Mr.
yet for her fully to recognize or at least admit the
was not indeed entirely an improvisation, but had taken shape in
Dorothea herself, would have been surprised at her beauty being made
a tragic chorus, wailing and moralizing over misery? I suspect that
Mrs. Garth was surprised to see Fred at this
first part of this speech comprised his whole store of maledictory
into the property, she must recognize the change in his position.
after dusk, Mary was not surprised, although he seldom had leisure
now came forward anxiously. Lydgate apologized for Mr. Wrench, said that
symptoms yesterday might have been disguising, and that this form of
"I should not be surprised at anything in Bulstrode, but
made a change for her, surprising her into taking some tea
more doubtful time, he had advised calling in Dr. Sprague (who,
become easy unless it frankly recognizes a mutual fascination—which of course
not in the habit of devising falsehoods, and if her statements
would be unimpeachable by any recognized opinion. In conduct these ends
in her husband not to apologize to her.
soul had been urged to particularize, it seemed to him that
all about life and death. Advise me. Think what I can
for a new candidate, documents utilized—who knew what might come of
something about you that has surprised me very much, Rosamond."
dear, be more thoughtful; don't despise your neighbors so. Remember you
moment of naturalness was the crystallizing feather-touch: it shook flirtation into
said that nobody need be surprised if he left the best
fished and fawned, but had advised him to the best of
him, would not fail to recognize his importance.
so—I hope some individual will apprise me of the fact. I
change to another sort of surprised expression, she added, "Why, Dodo,
I owe you acknowledgments for exercising your hospitality towards a relative
get the most of. The long-recognized blood-relations and connections by marriage
not to show anything so compromising to a man of ability
fire that Standish would be surprised some day: it is true
And certainly Mr. Standish was surprised, but not at all sorry;
but the Vincys themselves were surprised when ten thousand pounds in
"There's nothing very surprising in the matter that I
taken my resolution, so I advise you to lose no time
the generous host whom nobody criticises. In the earlier half of
we must accustom ourselves to recognize with regard to your brother's
the contrary, he would have despised any ostentation of expense; his
of expense; his profession had familiarized him with all grades of
a superiority which he must recognize, gives our bitterness a milder
of. Mr. Casaubon always expressly recognized it as his duty to
how backward he was in organizing the matter for his "Key
is a difficult case to advise upon. However, he has asked
study before term. I have advised him to do that. I
"How much, methinks, I could despise this man
for anything in his lot surmised or known in spite of
vindictiveness, it is the less surprising that the probability of a

Links

George Eliot at Project Gutenberg

George Eliot at Google Books

George Eliot at Wikipedia

Publishers at Wikipedia

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