Monday, September 16, 2013

Random-ise: the books of George Borrow, -ize and -ise verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page.

George Borrow 1803 - 1881

George Henry Borrow (5 July 1803 – 26 July 1881) was an English author who wrote novels and travelogues based on his own experiences traveling around Europe. Over the course of his wanderings, he developed a close affinity with the Romani people of Europe, who figure prominently in his work. His best known books are The Bible in Spain, the autobiographical Lavengro, and The Romany Rye, about his time with the English Romanichal (gypsies).

Principal works

  • The Zincali (1841)
  • The Bible in Spain (1843)
  • Lavengro (1851)
  • The Romany Rye (1857)
  • Wild Wales (1862)

Borrow and his publisher.

As far as I can see, all five of Borrow's major works were first published by John Murray of Albemarle Street, one of the principal London publishers of his day, and the publisher of the influential The Quarterly Review.
This 'advertisement' appears at the beginning of the 1900 edition of The Romany Rye, and the date in brackets would suggest that it had originally appeared in the First Edition of 1857.


It having been stated in print that the book called Lavengro was got up expressly against the popish agitation in the years 1850-51, the author takes this opportunity of saying that the principal part of that book was written in the year '43, that the whole of it was completed before the termination of the year '46, and that it was in the hands of the publisher in thebyear '48. And here he cannot forbear observing, that it was the duty of that publisher to have rebutted a statement which he knew to be a calumny; and also to have set the public right on another point dealt with in the Appendix to the present work, more especially as he was the proprietor of a Review, enjoying, however undeservedly, a certain sale and reputation.
From the edition published by Murray in 1900
The strange thing is that, as far as I can see, the publisher of Lavengro and that of The Romany Rye, who included this critical passage regarding the former, were in fact one and the same man: John Murray, also publisher of The Quarterly Review.
In a comment on my post concerning -ize suffix verbs in The Quarterly Review, Peter Harvey, of the Lavengro blog, pointed out that in the Introduction in his edition of The Romany Rye, Borrow says that Murray 'at last consented to publish the Romany Rye after a series of peremptory notes from the author "to oblige Mr Borrow".' And in the book itself, he refers to Murray as Glorious John, saying of another writer's book - 'Such a book would be sure to take; even glorious John himself would not disdain to publish it.' Thanks to Peter, by the way, for putting me onto these books.
So was there perhaps a bit of a tiff between them, I wonder, between the publishing of Lavengro and that of The Romany Rye?

General conclusions concerning the spelling of -ize verbs

  • The earlier editions of these five books, published by John Murray, mostly had z endings, but certain verbs, most noticeably civilise and recognise, were more likely to have s endings.
  • By the turn of the century, those books published by Murray had mainly (but not totally or consistently) changed to s spellings, although certain word families, such as baptise, were likely to keep their z ending.
  • By this time some, but not all, other publishers had also moved to s. My feeling is that those who hadn't simply took their versions from earlier editions, rather than making a policy of it (they often kept the same inconsistencies, for example).
  • Two things are evident, the earlier editions mostly use z endings, but not exclusively (23 to 16 in the case of The Zincali), and later editions mostly use s endings, but also not exclusively (35 to 12 for Wild Wales).
  • As mentioned above, certain verbs, especially civilise and recognise, were more likely to appear with s endings, even early on, and baptise was more likely to keep its z ending, something that's possibly still true today.

The Zincali 1841

The Project Gutenberg version (providence unknown) use mainly s endings except for the baptize family. Murray's earlier 1846 edition is rather mixed: 23 z to 16, something that seems fairly typical for the period. Certain (more common?) verbs seem to be more likely to have an s-ending - apologise, authorise, civilise, criticise, recognise.

Suffix -ize verbs - 43 instances of 20 verbs

Project Gutenberg
(edition unknown)

French -ise verbs - 42 instances of 25 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

ears a voice which I recognised as that of the Maecenas
least 1700 years; yet he recognised the Jew of Fez for
THIS edition has been carefully revised by the author, and some
of the first countries in civilised Europe where they made their
whom they are hated and despised. It will perhaps not be
blessings of a settled and civilised life, or - if abandoning
a low trafficker, will be surprised to learn, that amongst the
especially philology, it is only surprising that such a collection still
art. It is therefore not surprising that in the fifteenth and
considerable advantage. Poisoning cattle is exercised by them in two ways:
principals, in those disgraceful and brutalising exhibitions called pugilistic combats. I
have kept a race so enterprising any considerable length of time,
some of which do not comprise more than a dozen individuals,
principle of honour is still recognised amongst them, and base indeed
anxious to have their children baptized, and to obtain a copy
that they have there been exercising the arts of the tinker
that after their arrival in civilised Europe they would have retained
the Count be unable to devise a method to save their
authority which he had formerly exercised in the tribe. We had
ruined walls; I listened, and recognised the language of the abhorred
words spoken, I thought I recognised the peculiar jargon of my
had related, took his leave, advising him to compose his spirits,
my own house, I instantly recognised the effects of the poison
and suspecting their intentions, I disguised myself as a Gitano, and
in countenance, being hated and despised by the Spaniards, and persecuted
or prepared for sale, by disguising them, animals stolen by themselves
land of mystery to the civilised portion of the world; the
portion of the world; the enterprising children of Loyola having wandered
from Paris, the capital of civilisation: in a word, we scarcely
have been, are gentle and civilised.
means of sorcery, and so disguise him as to sell him
without fear of his being recognised. This latter trait is quite
are of Gypsy race. More enterprising individuals than myself may, perhaps,
these Gitanas, any one may recognise all the signs of a
celebrated for the arts of civilisation, imposed upon by the same
eye, which need not be particularised, as they consist of any
whom they are hated and despised, and whom they hate and
and whom they hate and despise, under the names of Busnees
one knows whether they are baptized. One of the five whom
a few days ago was baptized in the prison, being at
village of Torre Perojil, were baptized at the foot of the
appears to have been most scandalised at the want of religion
it exhibits some learning, and comprises many curious details respecting the
these Gitanas any one may recognise all the signs of a
heretics, and, amongst the Christians, baptizing now and then a child
very few are known to baptize their children; they are not
than expelling them. But experience, recognised by grave and respectable men,
others might not have been devised, better calculated to produce the
go out, in order to exercise the pursuit of husbandry. In
may be well excused from particularising. In 1783, a law was
by the multitude, and severely criticised by the discerning few who
entitled, 'Rules for repressing and chastising the vagrant mode of life,
them within the pale of civilised society by pursuing the course
they shall be prohibited from exercising the same trade, for a
office, shall be prosecuted and chastised like others guilty of the
over the face of the civilised globe, and which, in all
Spanish 'esquilar'; and even whilst exercising this art, they not unfrequently
customs, and so hardened by brutalising laws. Should so many beings,
them by the various measures devised, all of which were distinguished
any want of opportunity of exercising it, but to some other
when they are bent on victimising. 'A more ugly Busno it
looked at him, and scarcely recognised his face. It was no
an engagement, I arose, and apologising, told him I must leave
by which he may be recognised at some distance, even from
with which she provokes and despises danger, indicate manners half barbarous,
fortune, or some other cause, exercise, in appearance, a kind of
have a fine opportunity to exercise her powers, and whilst taking
according to Martin Del Rio, advised to sell nothing out of
small portion of the stone pulverised, at the time of going
the old woman - the tantalising knock at the door -
(59) because they are not baptized.'
an Englishman, and is not baptized; what cares he for souls?
characteristic is religious veneration, and uncompromising zeal for the glory of
to find fault with or criticise these songs, we have to
for themselves. They are a half-civilised, unlettered people, proverbial for a
we shall find little to surprise us in this predilection for
highest price which he was authorised to give for the animal
with none. Can we be surprised, therefore, that, mistaken in policy,
been permitted by Providence to exercise, without control or reproof, the
nor exert them but in devising low and vulgar schemes of
perhaps, ought not to be surprised that in the scanty phraseology
to the philologist, who, whilst stigmatising them as words of mere
his lettered attention - the despised denizens of the tents of
indebted to the well-known and enterprising traveller, Mr. Vigne, whose highly
times compelled people far more civilised than wandering Gypsies.

The Bible in Spain 1843

Both Murrays's 1843 edition and the Project Gutenberg version, based on the Cassel edition of 1908, mainly use z-endings, but notice the use of s for apologise, civilise and recognise. This is similar to The Zincali.

Suffix -ize verbs - 53 instances of 32 verbs

Project Gutenberg1843 First Edition
(Cassel 1908)Vol 1Vol 2Vol 3

French -ise verbs - 69 instances of 23 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

It is truly surprising what little interest the great
to the peace, happiness, and civilisation of his native land.
of a billow, and instantly recognised in the unfortunate man the
mouths wide. Is it surprising that the English are, in
of the city are those comprised within the valley to the
he said that nothing more surprised him than to see Englishmen,
was my pleasure. I apologised for intruding upon him, and
were sensible enough; indeed, nothing surprised me more than the free
night. The fellow on recognising him took him aside, and,
English, for they are not baptized, and have not the law,”
England, no one who was unbaptized could be buried in consecrated
occurred, I have been frequently surprised that I experienced no insult
I would strongly advise any of my countrymen who
hour of refection. I apologised, and was preparing to retire,
visibly increased, though, perhaps, a scrutinizing observer might have detected a
longer be tolerated in any civilized, or at least Christian, country!
looked with wonder at this surprising female, and could scarcely believe
relate to yourself, therefore I advise you not to inquire about
I confess that I am surprised to see a gentleman of
upon me, and I instantly recognized the sharp clever features of
at her heels is truly surprising: where she turns, they turn,
an Englishman?” demanded I, much surprised.
else you could not have recognized me by the tone of
you have seen how I recognized you even in the dark
Myself.—What you say surprises me. Have you reason
depart. My companion, however, advised me to remain where I
upon me with a peculiarly scrutinizing glance.
riding of an English jockey criticized, but it was by the
He hated Mendizabal with undisguised rancour, and never spoke of
to the duke, which he advised me to present when I
from them, just as if civilization could exist where the light
for its high state of civilization, and the unmatched prosperity which
“Have you, then, realized a large capital in Spain?”
to distribute it. I strongly advise you to see Isturitz himself
colleagues even infected Quesada, who, disguised as a civilian, took to
as the rest, but was recognised at a village about three
however, I felt very much surprised; for having passed it twice
“You recognized me at once for an
talk politics, which the more surprised me, knowing, as I did,
not. I would not advise you to trust them.”
on which the holy office exercises its functions. I need
worship’s approbation, as it is devised solely for your benefit, and
and occasionally a most discreet adviser: she entered into all my
sixteen, was bidding fair to realize the warmest hopes of his
disaster, and I was only surprised that the enemy did not
Mind—The Whisper—Salamanca—Irish Hospitality—Spanish Soldiers—The Scriptures advertised.
the wealthy are not blindly idolized. In Spain the very
has tended to debase and brutalize the human mind.
if they courted danger, and despised it. In every respect
countenance which I at once recognized: “Benedict Mol,” said I, “is
whom I told my business, advised me to send for a
Benedict.—He advised me to go to the
the comforts of life and civilized habits, are confessedly far behind
comments that every person was scandalized; they cared nothing about the
I would not, however, advise you to give that pony
well does it seem to realize all his visions of this
his musket, to drive back unauthorized intruders. I now looked
by means of which you disguise yourself, and appear tall or
Alcalde.—How surprising! I see, indeed, that
heard that the English highly prize this eccentric book. How
so patiently. But what surprised me most was, that after
were of the Carlist persuasion, advised him to betake himself to
and all its circumstances, freely criticising the conduct of the generals,
was despatched to Estremadura, to organize the militias. The bands
a plan to escape together; disguises were provided, and we made
desert me. I was disguised as a carman, as a
party of Carlists had just surprised that place, and were searching
it might be induced to recognize the young queen, not as
however modified, may still be recognized as Sanskrit. But what
I have spoken of the surprising number of Sanskrit words contained
I was advised to erase from the shop
said he would endeavour to devise some plan to satisfy me.
time also printed, was likewise advertised. For this last work
Gypsy books, which were to revolutionize the country, and annihilate the
habits of wandering having long familiarized me to situations of every
may go. I therefore advise you, if you are under
have had no difficulty in recognizing them. They glanced at
of the tarde, I therefore advise you to lose no time
That, however, which most surprises me with respect to you
of the embassy, however, had advised me how to act in
anything else. Now be advised, forget what has happened; you
forgive; so, Don Jorge, I advise you to leave this place
in company of their ghostly advisers.
frivolous, how vanity and crime harmonize. The Spanish robbers are
What most surprised me with respect to the
any particular care which was exercised over them; for perhaps in
countries, and more particularly in civilized France; nor are his eyes
Spanish, and to my great surprise excellent Basque, in which he
of the dungeon. He recognized me, and reminded me of
I know not; he was recognized, however, at a village in
us; we shall all be Lutheranized. What infamy, what rascality!
became full of new and surprising strength, and I strode forward,
and taciturn, which the more surprised me, as, up to the
whom I confess I heartily despised, and I was unwilling to
I; “return to the Duke, apologize for your behaviour, request your
It is not, therefore, surprising that men thus circumstanced should
as to myself, he was surprised that, being once lodged in
was of course very much surprised, but summoning all my Latinity,
business of his own and recognised the box, which he instantly
The reader will be surprised when I state that in
with people. I was recognised in a moment, and twenty
understand her, and waxing angry, anathematized her for a witch, and
pleasure, though I was much surprised to remark, that when the
adopted this most unprofitable and despised one. Oft have I
so many years in a civilised country like this of Spain,
the church; now pray be advised, and you shall be none
years since in Seville, a despised vagabond. He left behind
Tormes. Cervantes himself has immortalized this strand in the most
latter place, where he likewise advised me to sleep, in order
of steam in spreading abroad civilization, and I think justly.
is the dawn of their civilization.
where the people were most civilised, without experiencing some insult, so
that is Solomons, when I despise them. I do not
genuine English soldier. I prize the sturdy Scot, I love
start until the following morning, advising me at the same time
Lib. Thou didst not recognise me, but I knew thee
within the cave which would authorize the adoption of such an
but the old Genoese mate advised me to stay, assuring me
Starting up, however, I recognised the singular-looking Jew whom I
of Judah Lib. He recognised me also, and nodding, bent
Genoese brought me a portion, apologizing at the same time, for
place. He smiled, and advised me to proceed with considerable
to the Neapolitan consul, who prizes himself upon possessing the best
They are afraid of compromising his dignity by supposing that
man, whom I at once recognised as one of the Algerines,

Lavengro 1851

There are two versions of the original 1851 edition at Google Books, but unfortunately the only complete one is American-published and so not suitable for this research. The other was published by John Murray in London, but consists only of Volume 1 of 3. From the results of these though, it is fairly clear that z spellings were used for -ize verbs, with the exception of recognise.
Project Gutenberg has several editions. I've used a transcription from the 1914 edition from T.N.Foulis, published in Edinburgh. There's also one from an edition published by Macmillan in 1900. As far as I can see they are identical, and both use s spellings for -ize verbs throughout.

Suffix -ize verbs - 38 instances of 20 verbs

Project Gutenberg
(PG Foulis 1914)

French -ise verbs - 48 instances of 17 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

into whose communion I was baptized, and to which my forefathers
religion in which I was baptized, and of my forefathers, would
Yes, mother, thou didst recognise in the distant street the
disposed, under similar circumstances, to exercise the same species of charity
myself. I am no moraliser; but the gay and rapid
pervade my whole arm, which surprised me the more, as the
relating it, as it subsequently exercised considerable influence over my pursuits.
thee, thou fine old chap, despiser of dissenters, and hater of
with this journey which highly surprised me, and which brought to
a notorious malefactor. I recognised him at once; the horseman
of the figure, and had recognised it: it was the wild
Ireland in the cause of civilisation and religious truth; they were
the most trivial and unimportant, exercise a mighty and permanent influence
lay in their way with surprising agility; the animal was, however,
eyes like plums, and on recognising any one would exalt a
uncouth fowling-piece, I am less surprised at the number of birds
used, I should never have recognised you.’
language was doubtless that which exercised the greatest influence over my
however thou mayest seek to disguise the truth. Yes, yes,
back as I could remember exercised the strongest influence over my
I understood—English words, though strangely disguised; and I said to myself,
always been in use amongst civilised people—the worship of spirits is
a much higher state of civilisation than the Celts ever did,
cloud. ‘I love to exercise hospitality to wandering strangers, especially
magistrate, and, of course, cannot patronise the thing very openly, yet
is becoming bitter, and to prize the blessings around us; for
smile of triumph, as, probably recognising me in the crowd, he
accompanied by his dog, who sympathised entirely with him, pining as
word.’ Is it not surprising that the language of Mr.
how must I have been surprised, who was reading a newspaper
‘Then, sir, I would advise you to lose no time
a certain degree, his sentiments, temporising with the old gentlemen, with
nodded to me with a patronising air. ‘Glad to see
of course I was much surprised, and for a minute or
were somewhat short. He recognised my brother, and appeared glad
they had lived neglected and despised, and, when they p. 265died,
‘connected with this matter which surprises me—your own lukewarmness. Yes,
appeared to me that I recognised both individuals—the man whose pocket
servants to servants; persecuted and despised by all.’
with the comfortable hope of realising, in a short time, a
novel, otherwise he would not advertise for one. Suppose I
abundant—hungry talent too—a bookseller can advertise for a tale or a
but stores of information which surprised me. So pleased did
as secure, I should have prized it so much, that I
very kind to me; he advised me to travel, he offered
how I came originally to devise them, and by dint of
all, it is better to plariarise from the features of my
discountenance everything low and mean; advised him to eschew trade, and
who has come over to proselytise and plunder. This being
I don’t know how to advise you. As for selling
Slingsby had spoken in particular, advising me to mend them as
countenance. I had, however, recognised her voice; it was that
However, I should not be surprised if he were to come
that sometimes what I said surprised the good Methodist. We
I should not have been surprised. The Welsh have much
presence upon his scholars, he advised me to go home; which
said he; “if so, I advise thee to surrender thyself to
different persuasions. Hence he advised me to seek the advice
me, however, p. 488they all advised me to read the Scriptures
a perverse, inasmuch as you despise Welsh without understanding it.
frequent occurrence amongst children has tranquillised him; the mist which hung
said I; ‘I would not advise any one to speak ill
weeks ago, that I was exercising my ministry about forty miles
brother; it taught me to prize fair play. When I
going; I think I can advise you to just such a
on whose hoofs I could exercise my art, I made my
the reader need not be surprised if I speak occasionally in
creature whinnied, and appeared to sympathise with me. What a
even a dumb brute, to sympathise with me at such a
were. Oh, how I sympathised with Saul, the tall dark
like him; but I now sympathised with Saul, for my own
and drank ale, as you advised me; it cheered, strengthened, and
the dingle, in whom I recognised the man in black whom
me, before I go, to apologise for my intrusion.’
themselves,’ said I; ‘but I advise you, if you ever come
let old gouty George once patronise it, and I would consent
kind p. 594or other to eulogise us, provided our religion were
account, perhaps, they are so despised, even by those who benefit
I, ‘on which account I advise you to seek shelter from
slaves to Jamaica and Barbadoes, realising immense profit, besides the pleasure
in the family, my master advised me to leave, offering to
said that if he was scandalised at my behaviour in the
the church, I was more scandalised at all I saw going
did so merely because he despised the Whiggish principles of Lord
figure which I thought I recognised. I looked at it
do not know, but I recognised the face it showed me
books. The forty-four illustrations comprise many contemporary portraits, including Baron
and personal foibles are not bowdlerised; but the author’s taste is

The Romany Rye 1857

The version at Google Books is a 1914 reprint of the Sixth 'Definitive' Edition of 1900 (publisher's description), published by Johm Murray. Although it calls itself Volume 1 of 2, it has exactly the same number of chapters as the version at Project Gutenberg (PG), which is taken from an edition form J.M.Dent, published in 1907. So they are comparable.


  • While the Dent 1907 edition mainly uses z spellings, the Murray 1914 reprint is a z-fee zone.
  • There is one -ize verb with s spellings in the Dent edition - recognise / recognising
  • According to Peter Harvey, his Kindle version based on the 1903 Methuen & Co. edition, seems to have -ize only (although of course, Amazon might have used an edition published in the U.S.) So editions published by different publishers at much the same date, might go either way.

Suffix -ize verbs - 29 instances of 19 verbs

As in PG19071914

French -ise verbs - 68 instances of 21 verbs

devise (1)

Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

at first with the utmost surprise, not unmixed, I could observe,
offended,” he added, “I shall prize it all the more for
are forgotten. I am surprised that they have not been
with a look of some surprise.
of the latter have occasionally surprised us—for example, Bunyan. The
have myself admission, as a surprising young gentleman of infinite learning,
the man in black: “I advise you to leave the dingle
I will forward it, and advise you to do the same.
for this; you have frequently surprised me by your knowledge of
to confusion, because God hath despised them,’” said Belle; “I have
in her hand, whom I recognised as Mrs. Chikno, sat near
the truth, I am altogether surprised at the illiberality of my
and, with a significant nod, advised me to take care how
extempore; his doing so rather surprised and offended me at first;
I thought to myself how scandalized the people of D--- would
who were poor outcasts, and despised by everybody. My friends,”
in exchange; who are outcast, despised, and miserable?’ Now was
never get another.” What surprises me is, that he ever
“Why, ’t is advised by gypsy liri, brother.
still very beautiful, but I advise you to accept the first
change the subject; it is surprising to me that, after all
them were vain, they merely prized their beauty because it gave
growled and barked; but presently recognising me, they were again silent,
serpent-killer, to wrestle with her, disguising him in his own armour.
leaving my tent, I was surprised to observe Belle, entirely dressed,
as I was walking about, apologized for his behaviour on the
overtook her, she would only despise me for running after her;”
or not, I should heartily despise myself. So I determined
longer agitated by apprehension, nor agonized by expectation, I was soon
say you are a bit surprised with regard to the change
avoid laying out money.” Surprised at his saying that I
me to execute some grand enterprise or other. My present
species, did not appear to sympathize at all with its rider
book into my hand, and advised me to take it every
found myself nodding, and a surprising desire to sleep coming over
a postillion, whom I instantly recognized as he to whom I
safe; and, moreover, shouldn’t have despised myself. To curry favour
which means you will give exercise to yourself and horse, and,
whom were great friends and patronizers of the landlord, and were
The other, without manifesting much surprise, said, “I thank you; and
for a moment motionless with surprise; but, recollecting himself, he pointed
like to see their brother chastised in such tremendous fashion.
and said, “If you are surprised to see me, I am
resolution, at the same time advising him not to give up
may carry the blessings of civilization and religion to barbarous, yet
in one of whom I recognized the man in black, and
me that he seemed to recognize me for the first time,
allowing the gang the free exercise of their calling. Anybody
man, seriously, “then I can sympathize with you in your anxiety
cheer; I should not be surprised if you are yet in
back, as the surgeon had advised me, when I heard steps
words were kind. What surprised me most in connection with
slits or cuts, used for chastising disorderly urchins at the High
the neighbourhood, I felt no surprise, and forthwith departed in company
I was filled with surprise and consternation. I knew
short preamble, in which he apologized to the bench for interfering,
hoped in her company to realize the choicest earthly happiness, a
of practising resignation, and of realizing the benefit of being afflicted.
the necessity of rousing myself, advising me to occupy my mind
they meant. ‘I strongly advise you,’ said he, ‘to attempt
and also to take moderate exercise, and to see after your
of the day took moderate exercise, and attended to little domestic
learned that the surgeon, in advising me to study the marks,
I paid, the other pieces realizing very little. I did
in. I need not advise you not to be taken
which I could not well exercise him in the street, on
your terms. I would advise you to be cautious how
a fair son, who was baptized by the name of John.
to be instructed in knightly exercises, and made him a present
Bashaw Isack; and though himself surprised and routed at St. Imre,
It was he who organized the Hussar force, and it
for them. A gallant enterprise that siege of Vienna, the
exhibiting the slightest mark of surprise. William smiled, and slightly
Rogue,’ a book which, however despised, was written by a remarkable
fairs in all kinds of disguises; my father was a first-rate
a first-rate hand at a disguise, and could appear of all
in Yorkshire, where my father, disguised as a Quaker, attempted to
person to destruction. I advised him to try and make
him to let it be, advising him to go and steal
the trap, I contrived to prize them open, and get old
that many a dentist will moralize on the decays which human
when one was about to moralize, do you see, oneself, and
brisk and lively in a surprising degree.”
I apologized to Murtagh for interrupting him,
they had raised for their enterprise. Murtagh was deemed the
and the leaders, though somewhat surprised, assenting, he went to a
his bodily frame by robust exercises, his successive struggles, after his
warm affections, who, after an agonizing separation, are restored to each
God, which is kindness in disguise, become snakes and scorpions to
contained a balm for the agonized mind of poor Peter Williams.
fond of healthy and invigorating exercises, and felt a willingness to
but Buddhism under a slight disguise, and the European world in
the cause of religion and civilization with the colours of that
everything English; he does not advise his country people never to
his countrymen—a telling fact—affect to despise, and, of course, the Anglo-Germanists:
of wretches who, since their organization, have introduced crimes and language
and which are his own devising; which shares he sells as
a being to be shunned, despised, or hooted. Genteel!
upon are valuable, so he prizes much which the world condemns;
admires are contemptible, so he despises much which the world does
not; but when the world prizes what is really excellent, he
then will say that he prizes a thing or a person
which he had, are not advised to follow his example.
had had sufficient funds to authorize him in wearing them.
individuals of certain classes can prize a gentleman, notwithstanding seedy raiment,
against the victim, scouted him, apologized for the—what should they be
gentility-nonsense; no person can possibly despise it more thoroughly than that
whether they most hated or despised him. Religion he had
one or other of the enterprises of those periods; and the
and openness; and the author advises all those whose consciences never
In conclusion, the writer would advise those of his country-folks who
but let them take wholesome exercise, and eat the most generous
that he by no means advises women to be too womanly,
Now the writer strongly advises any woman who is struck
clench her fists, and he advises all women in these singular
it was an autobiography; never authorized any person to say that
he could not read, and devised an ingenious plan for teaching
neither read nor write, and devised an ingenious plan for teaching
number of ragged individuals are surprised in a stable in Cato
for revolutions and attempts to revolutionize, exclaiming now and then, as
hatred is by no means surprising. There is certainly a
to cause him the slightest surprise, for he had discovered a
Who, swollen with selfish vanity, devise False freedoms,
applied for ages ceases to surprise, for genteel is heathenish.

Wild Wales 1862

While the earlier Murray editions mainly had z endings (except for recognise), his 1907 edition, used by Project Gutenverg, had moved to mainly s, but this wasn't consistent - about 35 s to 12 z.

Suffix -ize verbs - 47 instances of 31 verbs

Project Gutenberg
(1907 John Murray)
John Murray

French -ise verbs - 53 instances of 16 verbs


Showing all instances of -ize and -ise as shown in Project Gutenberg

a being as daring and enterprising as the Welshman, but a
of the river. I apologised, and contrived to enter into
looked at me with some surprise. “No,” said he, after
the Wyddfa I must have recognised it, having been at its
a high bank, whom I recognised as the mower with whom
You need not be surprised, sir; there are plenty of
to it was very extensive, comprising, amongst other districts, the vale
Berwyn, for the purpose of botanizing, in which we were attended
was a good gwesty, and advised me to go and refresh
Geraint or Barber’s Hill, to botanize. Here we found a
that I too had been baptized, he asked me if I
and found to my great surprise that he had a considerable
Rather surprised that a person of his
sir;” said the man evidently surprised that a person of my
of the female ones of surprising sweetness. At the conclusion
that no one will be surprised when I say that I
justice supported by the State, authorised and empowered to carry the
it.’ Therefore I would advise you to brace up your
the southern side, and which comprises the church and the little
is the reception of this despised race of the wandering stranger
At Maidan at Constantinople with surprising exactness.
the dyffryn, I at once recognised in it that of a
“Then I would advise you to lose no time,”
if you think proper to patronise my house, the --- Arms,
“I will most certainly patronise your house,” said I to
by so doing I was patronising the poet, and lo, I
his house, and when he advised me to call for a
had promised the poet to patronize his house, and had by
Decidedly not! I had patronised a house which I believed
be the poet’s; if I patronised the wrong one, the fault
Wales. It is really surprising that the men of Llydaw
“I despise railroads,” said I, “and those
Caernarvon and Beth Gelert, strongly advised me to return to Bangor
the mountainous region of Eryri, comprising some of the most romantic
such a creature; and am surprised that any people in these
general. I am rather surprised that a dog in the
with his usual look of undisguised admiration, about the absolute necessity
telling her to Festiniog, she advised me to go by a
to circumstances. I strongly advise you, Mr, to put that
should know—and their very children sympathise with them. All conquered
On his entrance I recognised in him the magistrate’s clerk,
this news does not regularly surprise me! I can easily
are not likely to be realised. Oes y byd i’r
and in this posture sleep surprised me. Amongst the proverbial
attempted to slaughter. I recognised him by a patch which
me, and I thought I recognised the elder of the two
a rage or madness for poetizing, that I would make a
his sister, and determined to chastise me. One Sunday evening
fool for his pains, and advised him to go and load
he went on dallying and compromising with the lawyer, till he
interlude as a means of satirizing the vices of the popish
it is not meet to despise a poor man, who conducts
then appears the Fool to moralise and dismiss the audience.
lost your way?” I recognised it as that of the
on my left, which I recognised as the lake of Bala.
He passed without appearing to recognise me, and I, thinking it
tread. He looked rather surprised at seeing the doctor and
cross was emblematic of His surprising love and His willingness to
next halt, and had been advised by him to stop at
I were not he would advise me to go on, as
in Welsh to his professional adviser. Not wishing to hear
“Well, I suppose you would advise me to go by the
down before a turf fire, apologising for its smoking very much.
The kind young book-keeper now advised us to set out without
agility of the young girls surprised me; they sprang over the
half, they darted away with surprising swiftness down a hill towards
said the landlord, with a surprised and dissatisfied air, “that you
“Ah,” said I, recognising the old mining captain with
ecclesiastical law, however, did not recognise these poetical marriages, and the
There was, however, nothing surprising in this; he was a
slightest hurry: I would not advise a road-walker, even if he
woman, who, to my great surprise, could not speak a word
of various powerful individuals who patronized him, he travelled through Ireland,
“I suppose you are surprised to see me here; I
sixteenth century. He was baptised by the name of Thomas
cleverness and adroitness which he exercised in his calling; qualities in
she might know he was authorised to receive the money.
his death the crown of canonization having been awarded to Dewi,
the Cumry the arts of civilised life, to build comfortable houses,
“Well, then, I would just advise your honour to do no
out, the Duke of York apologised to Griffith, and besought his
the interior has been sadly modernized. It contains no remarkable
worst of his parishioners were scandalized, and said: “Bad as we
Rather surprised at the name, which signifies
“How do the English tyrannise over Ireland?”
“How do they tyrannise over her? Don’t they
of Wales which the Flemings colonised in any considerable numbers.
to Cardiff. It is surprising how similar many of the
but also by genius and enterprising spirit, and by such a
Taf, who should wish to apologise for the rather smutty appearance
so that the people were scandalized, and would take me by
that, honey; and I would advise people to avoid it even
great a torment as an agonizing recollection, a cold shrill laugh
always at war, have been immortalized by the great war-bard, Dafydd
Gael, who were the first colonisers of the Peninsula, and whose
and at last thought I recognised the features of the uncouth
a prince. It is surprising how similar in meaning the
or if one thinks one recognises it, it is under such
it is under such a disguise that one is rather timorous
defrauded by any attempt to apologise for the actions of the


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Peter Harvey said...

Congratulations once again on the research, and of course for the mention of my blog. There is a problem with John Murray – they were all called John, and indeed John Murray VII is alive now and was running the company till it was taken over.

Glorious John was John Murray II. He published The Zincali and The Bible in Spain but it was his son, John Murray III, who published Lavengro and The Romany Rye. Lavengro was not an immediate success; it came too late after The Bible in Spain and has what must be the most abrupt ending in all literature, in the middle of a crucial scene that is itself interrupted by a 9,000-word interpolated story. Then, when Murray saw The Romany Rye, which follows immediately on from the ending of Lavengro, he wanted to make major changes. Some of them would have helped the book but others most certainly would not. Borrow insisted he would change nothing. It was published but, as you suggest, the men were not on the best of terms by then.

Warsaw Will said...

Thanks for the comment and for clearing that up. I was aware that Glorious John was John Murray II, but I'd forgotten he'd died in 1843. Thanks again for putting me on to these books. One day I might even get round to reading one.