Friday, August 30, 2013

Random-ize: The King James Bible, -ize and -ize verbs

This is part of an investigation I've been doing into the use and spelling of -ize suffix verbs and their spelling (-ize or -ise) in British English. For more details, related posts and the methods I've used, see the -ize / -ise page.

Suffix -ize verbs - about 76 instances of 1 verb and its variations

Only one -ize suffix verb - baptize, in five variations (that I can find), is used in the body of the King James Bible, published in 1611, although there is one instance of dogmatize in the introduction. Even though the King James Bible is often referred to as the 'Authorised (or Authorized) Version', the word authorized doesn't seem to appear anywhere. In the frontispiece, is describes it as being 'By his Majesties speciall commandment ...Appointed to be read in churches'
The easiest way to see all the instances is to click on the numbers listed under KJBO in the table.
The Bible proper
Searching at KJBO and the University of Michigan will bring up a list of instances. At Project Gutenberg there's a searchable HTML file. The discrepancies are no doubt due to my bad counting.


Baptize was one of the first -ize suffix verbs, if not the first, to enter the English language. has it between 1250-1300, Online Etymology at c.1300. It is generally agreed to have come via Old French batisier, which itself came from Latin baptizare, which in turn came from Greek baptizein (to immerse, to dip in water) - the classic route for -ize suffix verbs.
While many publishers changed the spelling of other -ize suffix verbs to -ise during the 19th century, this doesn't appear to have happened with baptize, perhaps because of the power of the King James Bible, and the Book of Common Prayer, first published in 1549, but with a major revision in 1662, where baptizm also appears with a z.
baptise1620 (51K)
recognise (46K)
As was fairly typical, printers weren't always consistent. In the second volume of 'A scriptural Commentary on the Book of Genesis and the Gospel according to St. Matthew ...' by C.L. Coghlan, published in London in 1832, -ize is the preferred option (baptized 44, baptize 10 , baptizing 13) but they still manage nine instances of baptised.

Authorised, but baptized

In the New Testament of the only official revision of the King James Bible, the 'Revised Version', published in 1882, and in the 'Corrected English New Testament', published by Samuel LLoyd, of the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1905, the King James Bible is referred to as the Authorised Version (with an s), but all instances of baptized are left with their original z spellings.


In today's media, however, the -ise ending now dominates, as shown by these site searches:
The Church of England itself, on the other hand, still seems to favour the z spelling, at least on its own official website, although there are also a few examples with s. In a PDF giving the order of service, they give the key words as:
'I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, Amen'
On the page introducing baptism, however, they seem to be hedging their bets, writing:
'In the Anglican Church it is common to baptise young children; this is sometimes known as christening.'
closely followed by:
'Baptism is a 'sacrament' (holy ritual to symbolise grace) in the Christian tradition that is traced back to Jesus himself being baptized in the river Jordan.'
(My underlining in all examples)

Authorised Version - Update

As a result of a comment from vp (see below), I got interested in as to when people started calling the King James Bible the 'Authorised Version' (whether with an s or a z).
As I mentioned earlier, the 1611 King James Version doesn't include this description. At a quick look, neither the Cambridge edition of 1760, nor the better known Oxford version of 1769 mention the word 'authorized' either, and both have much the same frontispiece as the 1611 original.
Wikipedia gives the date of 1814 for the first use of 'Authorized Version' in the title, but unfortunately I can't find this in the link they give. And apparently the OED records a usage in 1824. But I think we can do better than that. I’ve found a reference from 1811, in the Monthly Magazine and British Register, (Page 296) which gives news of the formation of the Norfolk and Norwich Bible Society, one of whose resolutions is that 'the bibles and testaments to be circulated by the society shall be .. of the authorised version only.'
Interestingly, in connection with my main line of enquiry here, the Monthly Magazine and British Register for 1806 has six incidences of 'authorised' and six of 'authorized'. But none of them are in connection with the Bible, unfortunately.
The earliest reference I can find in Google Books to 'Authorized version' as part of the title is in a book of Psalms 'according to the authorised version' published in London in 1825. And the earliest edition of the Bible I’ve been able to find is an 1825-1827 edition of the Duoglott Bible, a bilingual Welsh and English bible which was first published in Swansea in 1823, beating the OED reference by a year. After that, Google Books also have an 1839 edition from the SPCK, and an 1841 one from Longman, both with the 'authorized version' appellation.
There are also links at Wikipedia to three earlier mentions of 'authorized version' in pamphlets, books etc, one from 1783, one from 1792, and one from 1801.
Here's how the history of 'authorised version' in British books appears in Ngram Viewer:

Comparison with earlier versions of the Bible

Google Books have an edition of the English Hexapla, published in 1841, where it is possible to compare six 'important translations' of the bible, together with the Greek original.
Here is a list of the main translations of the Bible into English leading up up to the King James Version. You can get a potted history of these at the Catholic Encyclopedia and individual accounts at Wikipedia, all linked to below. There is also a very detailed history in the introduction to the English Hexapla itself. Those marked with triple asterisks (***) are in the Hexapla. The names of the monarchs are simply given for time reference.
The versions used in the Hexapla are all from First Editions, or in the case of Tyndale, from his own revision, and for Wycliffe, collated from contemporary manuscripts.

Richard II 1337-1399

  • Wycliffe's Bible 1382-95 ***

Henry VIII 1509-1547

  • Tyndale Bible 1526-1536 ***
  • Coverdale's Bible 1535
  • Matthew Bible 1537
  • Taverner's Bible 1539
  • The Great Bible ('Cranmer's Bible') 1539-1541 ***

Elizabeth 1558-1603

  • Geneva Bible 1560 ***
  • Bishop's Bible 1568, revised 1572 ***
  • Douay-Rheims Bible 1582-1610 ***

James I 1603-1623

  • King James Bible (Authorized Version) 1611 ***

The English Hexapla 1841

Click on the words to see their instances in all six versions in the English Hexapla at Google Books.
baptizing2 55
baptizeth2 32
baptizest1 1
Comparing the six versions, a few things become clear:
  • All three earlier versions use -ise endings
  • All three later versions exclusively use -ize endings
  • The incidence of -ize suffix verbs is very low in the earliest version - Wycliffe
  • There were alternative s spellings with y - baptyse, baptysed and baptisyng.The first two were particularly common in the Great Bible ('Cranmer').

French -ise verbs in the 1611 King James Bible
266 instances of 12 verbs and their variants

Click on the numbers under KJBO to see the words in context

All -ize suffix verbs and French -ise verbs in the 1611 King James Bible in context


From the introduction at King James Bible Online
instantly dispelled those supposed and surmised mists, and gave unto all
good, whether it be by devising any thing our selves, or
any thing our selves, or revising that which hath bene laboured
reporter himselfe, though superstitious) was devised; Namely, that at such time
Ephraim was not to be despised. See Judges 8. verse 2.
Therfore, as Demaratus of Corinth advised a great King, before he
the Latine wee have beene exercised almost from our verie cradle.
neither did we disdaine to revise that which we had done,
be dissembled, that partly to exercise and whet our wits, partly
and not to conclude or dogmatize upon this or that peremptorily?
great things in vaine, O despise not so great salvation! Be
not your selves. Remember the advise of Nazianzene, It is a
of S. Augustine, They that despise Gods will inviting them, shal
This as they appear in the Project Gutenberg edition, in the order they appear in the bible. Click on a quote to check it in Google Search

Old Testament

had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.
she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD
child among you shall be circumcised.
And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin;
eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every man child
thy money, must needs be circumcised: and my covenant shall be
And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of
of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut
men of Abraham's house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin
and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his
years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his
the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.
money of the stranger, were circumcised with him.
And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight
went his way: thus Esau despised his birthright.
sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach
every male of you be circumcised; Then will we give
hearken unto us, to be circumcised; then will we take our
every male among us be circumcised, as they are circumcised.
be circumcised, as they are circumcised.
city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of
hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips? And the LORD
LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh
for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat
let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come
in the land: for no uncircumcised person shall eat thereof.
manner of workmanship, To devise cunning works, to work in
of workmanship; And to devise curious works, to work in
work, and of those that devise cunning work.
of his foreskin shall be circumcised.
count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised: three years shall it be
years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you: it shall not
And if ye shall despise my statutes, or if your
and I, even I, will chastise you seven times for your
their enemies; if then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, and they
iniquity: because, even because they despised my judgments, and because their
you: because that ye have despised the LORD which is among
the land which ye have despised.
Because he hath despised the word of the LORD,
come therefore, and I will advertise thee what this people shall
Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your
shall take that man and chastise him; And they shall
the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart
Make thee sharp knives, and circumcise again the children of Israel
made him sharp knives, and circumcised the children of Israel at
the cause why Joshua did circumcise: All the people that came
people that came out were circumcised: but all the people that
Egypt, them they had not circumcised.
in their stead, them Joshua circumcised: for they were uncircumcised, because
Joshua circumcised: for they were uncircumcised, because they had not circumcised
uncircumcised, because they had not circumcised them by the way.
pass, when they had done circumcising all the people, that they
the people that thou hast despised? go out, I pray now,
take a wife of the uncircumcised Philistines? And Samson said unto
into the hand of the uncircumcised? But God clave an
And I thought to advertise thee, saying, Buy it before
Samuel 1
will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly esteemed.
man save us? And they despised him, and brought no presents.
unto the garrison of these uncircumcised: it may be that the
Israel? for who is this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should defy
and the bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one
And Saul disguised himself, and put on other
me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through,
Samuel 2
lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph.
before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart.
Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the LORD,
thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the
any person: yet doth he devise means, that his banished be
ye: why then did ye despise us, that our advice should
that consumed us, and that devised against us that we should
pestilence in thy land? now advise, and see what answer I
Kings 1
and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this
your yoke: my father hath chastised you with whips, but I
with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
your yoke: my father also chastised you with whips, but I
with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
the month which he had devised of his own heart; and
Arise, I pray thee, and disguise thyself, that thou be not
king by the way, and disguised himself with ashes upon his
said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and enter into the
And the king of Israel disguised himself, and went into the
Kings 2
the daughter of Zion hath despised thee, and laughed thee to
Chronicles 1
me through therewith; lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me. But
dancing and playing: and she despised him in her heart.
coasts of Israel. Now therefore advise thyself what word I shall
Chronicles 2
to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I
with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
will add thereto: my father chastised you with whips, but I
with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
said unto Jehoshaphat, I will disguise myself, and I will go
So the king of Israel disguised himself; and they went to
his face from him, but disguised himself, that he might fight
the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his
laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, What is
our God; for we are despised: and turn their reproach upon
women, so that they shall despise their husbands in their eyes,
his device that he had devised against the Jews.
written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of
of all the Jews, had devised against the Jews to destroy
his wicked device, which he devised against the Jews, should return
their hands cannot perform their enterprise.
man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of
know my soul: I would despise my life.
shouldest oppress, that thou shouldest despise the work of thine hands,
feet is as a lamp despised in the thought of him
Yea, young children despised me; I arose, and they
If I did despise the cause of my manservant
a reproach of men, and despised of the people.
For he hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction of
counsel together against me, they devised to take away my life.
and brought to confusion that devise my hurt.
speak not peace: but they devise deceitful matters against them that
me: against me do they devise my hurt.
O God, thou wilt not despise.
to shame, because God hath despised them.
when thou awakest, thou shalt despise their image.
of the destitute, and not despise their prayer.
Yea, they despised the pleasant land, they believed
I am small and despised: yet do not I forget
eyes lofty: neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or
beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction.
none of my counsel: they despised all my reproof.
My son, despise not the chastening of the
Devise not evil against thy neighbour,
hated instruction, and my heart despised reproof; And have not
Men do not despise a thief, if he steal
a perverse heart shall be despised.
He that is despised, and hath a servant, is
contention: but with the well advised is wisdom.
Do they not err that devise evil? but mercy and truth
shall be to them that devise good.
He shutteth his eyes to devise froward things: moving his lips
a fool: for he will despise the wisdom of thy words.
father that begat thee, and despise not thy mother when she
sons of man to be exercised therewith.
sons of men to be exercised in it.
the poor man's wisdom is despised, and his words are not
Song of Solomon
yea, I should not be despised.
the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy
One of Israel, Because ye despise this word, and trust in
broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no
Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites. Who among us
the daughter of Zion, hath despised thee, and laughed thee to
more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.
He is despised and rejected of men; a
faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
thee; and all they that despised thee shall bow themselves down
Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and
thyself fair; thy lovers will despise thee, they will seek thy
hear? behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken: behold,
I am the LORD which exercise lovingkindness, judgment, and righteousness, in
punish all them which are circumcised with the uncircumcised; Egypt,
which are circumcised with the uncircumcised; Egypt, and Judah, and
for all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of
the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.
knew not that they had devised devices against me, saying, Let
frame evil against you, and devise a device against you: return
they, Come and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; for the
Is this man Coniah a despised broken idol? is he a
say still unto them that despise me, The LORD hath said,
bemoaning himself thus; Thou hast chastised me, and I was chastised,
chastised me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to
them off? thus they have despised my people, that they should
Moab: in Heshbon they have devised evil against it; come, and
and the strong holds are surprised, and the mighty men's hearts
small among the heathen, and despised among men.
for the LORD hath both devised and done that which he
praise of the whole earth surprised! how is Babylon become an
Lamentations of Jeremiah
removed: all that honoured her despise her, because they have seen
forgotten in Zion, and hath despised in the indignation of his
done that which he had devised; he hath fulfilled his word
these are the men that devise mischief, and give wicked counsel
daughters of the Philistines, which despise thee round about.
thou hast done, which hast despised the oath in breaking the
him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake,
many persons: Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the
mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he
in my statutes, and they despised my judgments, which if a
all lands; Because they despised my judgments, and walked not
executed my judgments, but had despised my statutes, and had polluted
Thou hast despised mine holy things, and hast
land have used oppression, and exercised robbery, and have vexed the
die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers:
are round about them, that despised them; and they shall know
judgments upon all those that despise them round about them; and
in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that be slain
be thou laid with the uncircumcised.
are gone down, they lie uncircumcised, slain by the sword.
sword, which are gone down uncircumcised into the nether parts of
about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword: though
about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword, though
that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to
in the midst of the uncircumcised, and shalt lie with them
they shall lie with the uncircumcised, and with them that go
their might; and they lie uncircumcised with them that be slain
in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain
brought into my sanctuary strangers, uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in
strangers, uncircumcised in heart, and uncircumcised in flesh, to be in
the Lord GOD; No stranger, uncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised in
stranger, uncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into
of the heaven; I will chastise them, as their congregation hath
my desire that I should chastise them; and the people shall
punishment thereof; because they have despised the law of the LORD,
it? I hate, I despise your feast days, and I
the heathen: thou art greatly despised.
Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon
against this family do I devise an evil, from which ye
For who hath despised the day of small things?
goodly price that I was prised at of them. And I
unto you, O priests, that despise my name. And ye say,
ye say, Wherein have we despised thy name? Ye offer

New Testament

about Jordan, And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing
I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance.
worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost,
Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him.
I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou
And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of
hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve
Take heed that ye despise not one of these little
drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I
the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him,
of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I
the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on
the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they
and they that are great exercise authority upon them.
therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of
John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach
of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river
indeed have baptized you with water: but he
with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.
Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.
I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I
the baptism that I am baptized with? And they said
the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized:
baptized withal shall ye be baptized: But to sit on
to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their
them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.
He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he
eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called
days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name
that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of
came also publicans to be baptized, and said unto him, Master,
unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one
worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost
when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that
pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was
the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John.
God against themselves, being not baptized of him.
have a baptism to be baptized with; and how am I
hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve
that they were righteous, and despised others: 18:10 Two men went
The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and they
over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are called
I will therefore chastise him, and release him.
in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.
and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be
John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth
beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.
Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.
he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said
the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.
he tarried with them, and baptized.
And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim,
and they came, and were baptized.
barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to
heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John,
John, (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,)
ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man.
place where John at first baptized; and there he abode.
For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall
water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not
unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in
gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there
so Abraham begat Isaac, and circumcised him the eighth day; and
things? Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye
of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.
also: and when he was baptized, he continued with Philip, and
of them: only they were baptized in the name of the
doth hinder me to be baptized? And Philip said, If
and the eunuch; and he baptized him.
forthwith, and arose, and was baptized.
that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy
he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the
Thou wentest in to men uncircumcised, and didst eat with them.
that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall
water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost.
the prophets; Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for
and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses,
That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them
souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law: to
with him; and took and circumcised him because of the Jews
And when she was baptized, and her household, she besought
washed their stripes; and was baptized, he and all his, straightway.
Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.
Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's
Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance,
they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the
great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should be
that they ought not to circumcise their children, neither to walk
tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins,
And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a
winter in, the more part advised to depart thence also, if
The Epistles of Paul
which he had yet being uncircumcised: that he might be the
believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed
which he had being yet uncircumcised.
many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized
baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore
Let not him that eateth despise him that eateth not; and
for you? or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?
I thank God that I baptized none of you, but Crispus
should say that I had baptized in mine own name.
And I baptized also the household of Stephanas:
I know not whether I baptized any other.
Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel:
world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and
are honourable, but we are despised.
Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised.
circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision?
uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised.
sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud
and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God,
one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we
shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the
all? why are they then baptized for the dead? And
Let no man therefore despise him: but conduct him forth
Greek, was compelled to be circumcised: And that because of
of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on
was in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected; but received
you, that if ye be circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing.
to every man that is circumcised, that he is a debtor
they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should suffer
neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law; but desire
but desire to have you circumcised, that they may glory in
the flesh, I more: Circumcised the eighth day, of the
toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of
In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without
Despise not prophesyings.
and old wives' fables, and exercise thyself rather unto godliness.
For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is
Let no man despise thy youth; but be thou
believing masters, let them not despise them, because they are brethren;
trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good,
all authority. Let no man despise thee.
of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and
He that despised Moses' law died without mercy
before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set
as unto children, My son, despise not thou the chastening of
righteousness unto them which are exercised thereby.
General Epistle of James
him? But ye have despised the poor. Do not rich
Epistles General of Peter
we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known
the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, selfwilled,
souls: an heart they have exercised with covetous practices; cursed children:
The General Epistle of Jude
filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of
In the Old Testament, there are no entries in: Ezra, Daniel, Joel, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah or Heggai
In the New Testament, there are no entries in: General Epistle of John, Revelations


Searchable versions of the King James Bible online

Facsimile versions of the King James Bible online


At Google Books



vp said...

Wow -- great post!

BTW, the King James Bible doesn't seem to have been referred to as the "Authori{s|z}ed Version" before the nineteenth century -- Wikipedia has some references.

Warsaw Will said...

Thanks for that, that's interesting and I'd rather missed it. However I've done a little poking around in Google Books, and can perhaps beat the OED by a year.

In response to your comment I've added a section - 'The Authorised Version - Update'.

Thanks again.

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